The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The strategic partnership that unites Brazil and the United Kingdom is firmly based on historical relations between the two countries. As early as 1825, the United Kingdom recognized Brazil's independence. In 1919, Brazil and the United Kingdom raised their legations in London and Rio de Janeiro, respectively, to the category of embassies.
The twentieth century represented a period of diminishing British presence in Brazil. This trajectory, however, went through a marked inflection at the beginning of the new millennium, the result of the mutual perception that Brazil and the United Kingdom are interested in intensifying their bilateral relations and building strategic partnerships within a global scope.
The British Government has singled out Brazil as one of the countries of interest within the framework of its “Global Britain” foreign policy, in the new scenario of international insertion of that country. In addition to its importance in the fields of trade and investment, Brazil is identified as a bilateral partner in important international forums, in view of the convergence of values and the capacity for international activity of both chancelleries.
The United Kingdom supports Brazilian claims, such as accession to the OECD and, for a longer time, the candidacy for a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council. On January 15, 2020, President Jair Bolsonaro and Prime Minister Boris Johnson had a cordial conversation on the phone. The reciprocal visits by Ministers of Foreign Affairs, which followed the presidential conversation and had been scheduled for the first half of 2020, had to be postponed due to the Covid-19 pandemic.
The United Kingdom is one of the main investors in the country. The United Kingdom's foreign direct investment (FDI) stock in Brazil (“final controller”) reached $18 billion in 2018 (latest data available). The FDI stock, by the criterion of “immediate investment”, was $17 billion in 2018. There are more than 800 British companies in the country. Investments are concentrated in the manufacturing industry, extractive industries, financial activities and trade in parts and accessories for vehicles. The United Kingdom ranks 2nd among the 17 countries with the greatest potential investment - behind China: R$59 billion; and 10th among 17 countries with the highest guaranteed investment: R$2.2 billion.
Trade flow between Brazil and the United Kingdom in 2019 totaled $5.3 billion, (+ 2% compared to 2018). The surplus in favor of Brazil was $633 million. Brazilian exports to the UK amounted to $2.96 billion. Main items exported by Brazil: metals and precious stones (26%), mechanical machines (8.3%), prepared meat (7.2%). Brazilian imports, in 2019, reached $2.33 billion, having as main items: mechanical machines (15.4%), various products of common metals (10.2%), pharmaceuticals (9.4%), automobiles (8.5%), various chemical industry products (8.2%).
The Brazilian community in the United Kingdom is estimated by the Foreign Ministry at around 180 thousand people – the largest in Europe. The Consulate General of Brazil in London and four honorary consulates in Cardiff, Edinburgh, Glasgow and Manchester provide consular assistance to Brazilian nationals.
Chronology of bilateral relations
2020 – Minister of the Economy Paulo Guedes and British Chancellor of the Exchequer Sajid Javid hold a meeting at the margins of the World Economic Forum in Davos (22 January)
2019 – UK Minister of State for International Trade, Conor Burns, visits Brazil (August 21)
2017 – Minister of Foreign Affairs Aloysio Nunes visits London and holds a working meeting with the United Kingdom's Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Boris Johnson (August 25)
2016 – Minister Mauro Vieira travels to London, where he has a meeting with the UK Minister of State for Trade and Investment, Lord Maude, on the sidelines of the International Conference in Support of Syria and the Region (February 4)
2013 – Minister Antonio de Aguiar Patriota visits London on the occasion of the second meeting of the Brazil-United Kingdom Strategic Dialogue Mechanism ( February 4-5)
2012 – Prime Minister David Cameron visits Brazil (September 27-28)
2009 – President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva receives Chatham House Award and participates in Investment Seminar in the United Kingdom (November 5)
2009 – President Lula visits London, in the context of the G20 Summit
2009 – Prime Minister Gordon Brown makes his first visit to Brazil
2009 – Fourth visit by Prince Charles, after 1978, 1991 and 2002
2007 – In a telephone conversation, Prime Minister Gordon Brown reiterates to President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva Lula British support for a permanent seat on the UN Security Council and for the country's presence on the G8 + 5 outreach
2006 – State visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to London
2006 – On her first visit abroad, Foreign Secretary Margareth Beckett delivered her inaugural speech at Getúlio Vargas Foundation (Fundação Getúlio Vargas)
2005 – Visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, during the G8 Summit, in Gleneagles
2005 – Mistaken for a terrorist, Brazilian Jean Charles de Menezes is murdered in London by the Metropolitan Police
2003 – President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva's participation in the Progressive Governance Summit
2003 – United Kingdom announces support for Brazil's permanent seat on the UN Security Council
2001 – Prime Minister Tony Blair makes the first official visit of a British Head of Government to Brazil
1997 – State visit of President Fernando Henrique Cardoso to the United Kingdom
1982 – Brazil remains neutral in the Malvinas War, although it recognizes Argentine sovereignty; banned British aircraft from landing and overflight
1968 – Queen Elizabeth II makes first official visit of royalty to Brazil
1944 – At the Dumbarton Oaks Conference, the British and the Soviet governments reject US proposal for Brazil's permanent seat on the UN Security Council
1919 – The Legation of Brazil in London is raised to the category of Embassy. Conversely, the United Kingdom raises the Legation in Rio de Janeiro to the Embassy
1902 – Sworn in as Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Baron of Rio Branco defends the change of the axis of foreign policy from London to Washington
1901 – Bilateral arbitration of the border with English Guiana
1890 – The United Kingdom recognizes The Republic of Brazil (December 3)
1825 – The United Kingdom recognizes Brazil’s independence