United States of America
The intensity of bilateral relations between Brazil and the United States is demonstrated by the more than thirty dialogue mechanisms between the Governments of the two countries, covering topics such as trade, investments, energy, environment, education, science, technology and innovation, defense, security and trilateral cooperation.
Among the main bilateral coordination mechanisms, the following should be highlighted:
- Global Partnership Dialogue (co-chaired by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Brazil and the Secretary of State of the United States);
- Defense Cooperation Dialogue (co-chaired by the Minister of Defense of Brazil and the Secretary of Defense of the United States);
- Strategic Energy Dialogue; and
- Economic and Financial Dialogue.
Those four mechanisms, as well as the Brazil-U.S. CEO Forum, have their recommendations subjected to the attention of the Presidents of both countries.
The United States are the second largest trading partner of Brazil, with bilateral trade flow exceeding USD 46 billion in 2016. The United States is the main export destination for manufactured and semi-manufactured Brazilian Products, which compose about 75% of Brazilian exports to the US.
According to data of the Brazilian Central Bank, the United States continues to be the country with the highest Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Brazil, with stock of US$116 billion by 2013 (latest data available). The stock of Brazilian direct investments in the US grew from US $ 7.3 billion in 2009 to US $ 22.4 billion in 2014 (last available data). Investment flows have become more equitable, not because the US investment fell, but because Brazilian investments increased at a faster rate – in 2000, every dollar invested in the U.S by Brazilian-owned companies corresponded to about 47 dollars invested in Brazil by US-owned companies; in 2014, this ratio dropped to US$3 from US companies for every dollar invested by Brazilian companies.
Brazil and the United States maintain trilateral cooperation programs in countries such as Haiti, Egypt, Mozambique and Angola, contributing to their social and economic development. Some of the areas benefited by these partnerships are agriculture, combat to child labor, medicine production, and combat to hunger. The development of ethanol production - mainly in Central America and the Caribbean, regions of traditional sugarcane production- is also the focus of trilateral cooperation, always at the request of the countries receiving the support.
Air transport and passengers travels between Brazil and the United States are also an important component of bilateral relations. In March 2011, during the visit of President Barack Obama to Brazil, the Air Transport Agreement was signed, which provides for the continuous increase in the establishment of air routes between the two countries; in April 2012, during the visit of President Dilma Rousseff to the United States, the Aviation Partnership was launched, whose Action Plan includes projects of interest for industries and agencies related to aviation in Brazil and in the United States.
As a result of the bilateral relations dynamism, the following official visits took place throughout 2016: Cooperation meeting to Combat the Zika Virus Epidemic; 3rd Brazil-US Commission of Economic and Trade Relations; First Working Group on Global Human Rights; First and Second Technical Meetings on the Infrastructure Working Group; 14th Dialogue Meeting between the Brazilian Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade and the U.S. Department of Commerce/DoC; 8th Meeting of the Brazil-U.S. Consultive Committee on Agriculture, in which it was announced the reciprocal liberalization of markets to the export of beef; First Meeting of the Defense Industry Dialogue; 2nd Meeting of the Working Group on Climate Change and First Meeting of the Public-Private Forum on Forest Investments; 17th Meeting on Consular and Judicial Cooperation.
Also worthy of mention in 2016, are the meetings held between Foreign Minister José Serra, Chief of Staff of the White House (USTR), Michael Froman, and Secretary of State John Kerry, on the occasion of the Rio Olympics; of the Defense Minister, Raul Jungmann and Secretary of Defense, Ashton Carter; as well as the visit to Brasília by Secretary of Treasury, Jacob Lew, for meetings with high authorities.
This dynamics stresses the force of the continuous process of intensification of the bilateral political dialogue on the highest level, the expansion of economic and commercial relations, the strengthening of cooperation in defense and security, the fomenting of cooperation in science, technology and innovation, and the facilitation of the flow of people.
Chronology of Bilateral Relations
1824 – The United States is the first nation to recognize Brazil’s independence. Establishment of diplomatic relations. Inauguration of the Brazilian Legation in Washington
1825 – Inauguration of the Legation of the United States in Brazil
1876 – Emperor Dom Pedro II visits the United States
1905 – Elevation of the two Legations to Embassy status. Joaquim Nabuco is the first Ambassador of Brazil in Washington, and David E. Thompson is the first Ambassador of the United States in Rio de Janeiro
1936 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt visits Brazil
1947 – President Harry Truman visits Brazil
1949 – President Eurico Gaspar Dutra visits the United States
1960 – President Dwight D. Eisenhower visits Brazil
1978 – President Jimmy Carter visits Brazil
1982 – President Ronald Reagan visits Brazil
1986 – President José Sarney visits the United States
1990 – President George H. W. Bush visits Brazil
1995 – President Fernando Henrique Cardoso visits the United States
1997 – President William J. Clinton visits Brazil
2005 – President George W. Bush visits Brazil
2006 – President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva visits the United States
2007 – President George W. Bush visits São Paulo (March). Signing of Memorandum of Understanding on Biofuels
2007 – President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva visits Camp David
2007 – Resolution of the U.S. House of Representatives recognizes the “warm friendship” and the growing “strategic relations” between Brazil and the United States (September)
2008 – U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice visits Brasília and Salvador. Signing of the Action Plan to Promote Racial and Ethnic Equality (March)
2008 – Minister of Defense Nelson Jobim visits Washington (March). Promotion of military rapprochement between the two countries
2008 – The Chief of the Civilian Household of the Presidency, Dilma Rousseff, visits Washington (April)
2008 – First meeting of the ‘Brazil Caucus’, a new informal group of congress members with interest in Brazil and the Brazil-U.S. relations (September)
2009 – Secretary General of Foreign Affairs Samuel Pinheiro Guimarães visits Washington (June)
2010 – Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visits Brazil (March). The Global Dialogue Partnership is launched
2011 – U.S. Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner visits Brazil (February). Dialogue on the world economic situation
2011 – Minister Antonio de Aguiar Patriota visits the United States (February 23 and 24). Dialogue on themes of the bilateral and global agenda
2011 – President Barack Obama visits Brazil (March). Signing of ten bilateral agreements
2011 – The second meeting of the Global Dialogue Partnership is held in Washington
2012 – U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visits Brazil (April 16 and 17). The third meeting of the Global Dialogue Partnership is held in Brasília with the aim of taking “further steps” in the bilateral relations
2012 – U.S. Secretary of Homeland Security Janet Napolitano visits Brazil (July). Deepening of bilateral dialogue on visa and migration
2012 – The fourth meeting of the Global Dialogue Partnership, the last under the coordination of U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, is held (October). The conclusion of the Action Plan on Aviation Partnership is announced
2013 – Minister Antonio Patriota visits Washington (May 20)
2013 – U.S. Vice President Joe Biden visits Brasil (May 31). The agenda focus on economy and energy issues
2013 – Vice President Joe Biden visits Brazil (May 31)
2015 – Vice President Joe Biden visits Brazil on the occasion of the inauguration of President Dilma Rousseff (January 1st)
2015 – Minister Mauro Vieira visits Washington (January 13-16)
2016 – Minister Mauro Vieira travels to the United States on the occasion of the Third Meeting of the Brazil-U.S. Commission on Economic and Trade Relations under the Brazil-United States Agreement on Trade and Economic Cooperation (ATEC), and in the 4th Nuclear Security Summit, in Washington, D.C. (March 31 to April 1)
2016 – Foreign Minister José Serra holds a working meeting with Secretary of State John Kerry at the Itamaraty Palace in Rio de Janeiro on the occasion of the opening of the Rio 2016 Olympics (August 5)
2017 - U.S. Under Secretary for Political Affairs, ambassador Thomas Shannon, visits Brazil, when he is hosted by Foreign Minister José Serra (December 17)
2018 – U.S. Vice President Mike Pence visits Brasília (June 26-27)
2019 – Minister Ernesto Araújo receives U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo (Brasília, January 2), who represented President Donald Trump in the inauguration of president Jair Bolsonaro [Press conference]