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Argentine Republic

Argentina is one of Brazil’s main political and economic partners. Bilateral relations are strategic to the regional and global insertion of Brazil. The construction of a political relationship of trust and cooperation with Argentina contributes to the establishment of a regional space of peace and cooperation. Together, Brazil and Argentina account for about two thirds of the territory, population and GDP of South America.

The process of political rapprochement between Brazil and Argentina, which began with the redemocratization of the two countries in the 1980s, was the foundation of the South American integration project that led to the creation, in 1991, of the Common Market of the South (MERCOSUR).An increasing bilateral economic integration has strengthened the economy and industry of the two countries. Brazilian capital assets are present in different sectors of the Argentinian economy, such as, iron and steel, oil, banking, automotive, textile, footwear, agricultural machinery,  mining and civil construction. The presence of Argentinian capital in Brazil is also significant.

In 2018, bilateral trade flow reached 26 billion dollars, a decrease of 3.89 per cent over the previous year caused by a drop in Brazilian exports (15 billion dollars, -15.1 %) and an increase in imports of Argentinian products (11 billion, +17.1 %). In the same period, Brazil had a bilateral trade surplus of 3.9 billion dollars with Argentina (-52.33% compared to 2017). Argentina is the third main destination of Brazilian exports.

The strong bilateral trade activity, marked by the high percentage of high value-added products, has na important impact on strategic sectors of the two economies, especially industry. Some of the main areas benefiting from the bilateral partnership include the automotive sector, which has direct and indirect effects on the Brazilian economy as a whole, in fields as diverse as mining, iron and steel, chemistry, oil and gas, and the service sector (engineering, metalworking, administration, advertising and marketing, among others).

In the political sphere, proximity with Argentina is an important pillar in the effort to construct a space of peace and cooperation around Brazil. The high density of political cooperation between the two countries is reflected in regular bilateral meetings and visits at presidential and ministerial levels. In recent years, several institutional dialogue channels have been strengthened, in particular those concerning the holding of Bilateral Production and Trade Commission meetings; the reactivation of the Nuclear Policy Permanent Committee; the creation of the Political Coordination Mechanism at the level of deputy foreign ministers; and the resumption of a forum for coordination between ministers of Foreign Affairs and Defense, arranged in the format of a Political-Military Dialogue.

Brazil and Argentina share a border that extends for 1,261 km (783.5 miles). Border integration policy is an essential aspect of the bilateral cooperation agenda. The Cooperation Commission for the Development of Border Areas (CODEFRO), established in 2011, is the highest bilateral forum for deliberation on binational border policies and for the handling of demands raised in the context of the Brazil – Argentina Border Integration Committees, which meet annually in border localities of the two countries.



Chronology of Bilateral Relations

1821 – The Portuguese Government in Rio de Janeiro is the first to recognize the independence of Argentina

1822 – Antônio Manuel Correia da Câmara is appointed as Consul and Commercial Agent in the La Plata region (‘Correia da Câmara Mission’)

1823 – Argentina is the first country to recognize the independence of Brazil and to establish diplomatic relations with the empire. Argentine envoy Valentín Gómez presents the Brazilian foreign minister a credential letter signed by Bernardino Rivadavia recognizing the independence of Brazil (August 5), and is received by Dom Pedro I (August 11)

1825 – The Congress of Buenos Aires proclaims the reintegration of the Banda Oriental into Argentine territory. Argentina breaks off relations with Brazil, which, in turn, declares war. Beginning of the Cisplatine War

1828 – The Peace Convention that puts an end to the Cisplatine War and formalizes the independence of Uruguay is signed in Rio de Janeiro

1831 – Antônio Cândido Ferreira is appointed as Chargé d'Affaires and Consul General in Argentina

1833 – Brazil recognizes Argentinian rights over the Malvinas Islands, occupied by the Unied Kingdom

1850 – Diplomatic relations are broken off between Brazil and the Argentinian government of Juan Manuel de Rosas

1851 – Brazil, Uruguay and the Argentinian provinces of Entre Ríos and Corrientes sign, in Montevideo, the Convention for an offensive and defensive alliance against Rosas. Rosas declares war against the Brazilian Empire

1852 – Juan Manuel de Rosas is defeated by the coalition between Brazil, Uruguay and the Argentinian provinces of Entre Ríos and Corrientes

1856 – The treaty of Friendship, Trade and Navigation between Brazil and Argentina is signed, ensuring free navigation of the La Plata river

1864 – The  Paraguayan War begins

1865 – Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay sign the Treaty of the Triple Alliance

1870 – The  Paraguayan War ends

1889 – Brazil and Argentina sign an Arbitration Treaty for the prompt settlement of the pending limits issue in the Palmas region

1889 – Argentina recognizes the republican regime in Brazil (November 19)

1895 – Arbitration in the Question of Palmas. The report of U.S. President Grover Cleveland is favorable to Brazil

1898 – Brazil and Argentina  sign a boundary treaty based on the 1895 arbitration verdict

1899 – The President of Argentina, Julio Roca, visits Brazil. First official visit of a foreign Head of State to the country

1900 – The President of Brazil, Campos Sales, visits Argentina. First official visit of a Brazilian Head of State abroad

1910 – The President-elect of Argentina, Roque Sáenz Peña, visits Brazil, at the invitation of the Baron of Rio Branco

1915 – The Foreign Minister of Brazil, Lauro Müller, visits Argentina and signs the “ABC Pact”, in which Chile also takes part

1922 – The delegation of Brazil in Buenos Aires is elevated to Embassy status

1935 – The President of Brazil, Getúlio Vargas, travels to the La Plata region and makes an official visit to Argentina. Brazil and Argentina mediate the solution to the Chaco War

1961 – Uruguaiana Meeting between Presidents Jânio Quadros (Brazil) and Arturo Frondizi (Argentina), in which the Friendship and Consultation Convention is signed

1969 – Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay sign the La Plata Basin Treaty

1972 – The President of Argentina, Alejandro Lanusse, visits Brazil and signs, with the President of Brazil, Emílio Médici, bilateral agreements on physical integration

1977 – Disagreements over the Itaipu Power Plant lead to the closure of the border between Brazil and Argentina. Trilateral talks on the construction of the plant are initiated

1979 – Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay sign the Tripartite Agreement on Technical-Operative Coordination for the Hydroelectric Use of Itaipu and Corpus

1980 – The President of Brazil, João Baptista Figueiredo, visits Argentina. First visit of a Brazilian president since 1935

1980 – The President of Argentina, Jorge Videla, visits Brazil

1981 – Meeting between Presidents João Figueiredo and Roberto Viola on the border between Brazil and Argentina, in the city of Paso de los Libres

1982 – Brazil remains neutral in the Malvinas War, but recognizes Argentinian sovereignty over the Islands

1985 – President-elect Tancredo Neves finishes his Argentine tour (February)

1985 – Beginning of a rapprochement process between Brazil and Argentina. The “Declaration of Iguaçu” is signed by Presidents José Sarney and Raúl Alfonsín on the border between the countries

1986 – The President of Brazil, José Sarney, makes a state visit to Argentina. Signing of the “Act for Brazilian-Argentine Integration” , which establishes the Program for Integration and Economic Cooperation (PICE)

1988 – Signing of the Integration, Cooperation and Development Treaty, based on the PICE

1990 – Signing of the Buenos Aires Act by Presidents Fernando Collor and Carlos Menem. Brazil and Argentina decide to establish a common market by the end of 1994 (July 6)

1991 – Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay sign the Treaty for the constitution of the Common Market of the South (MERCOSUR)

1991 – Creation of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC)

1992 – President Itamar Franco visits Argentina to participate in the Rio Group meeting (December)

1993 – President Itamar Franco makes a bilateral visit to Argentina (May 25)

1995 – The Mercosur Customs Union comes into force with the adoption of the common external tariff (TEC)

1995 – President Fernando Henrique Cardoso visits Argentina on the occasion of President Carlos Menem inauguration (July 8)

1996 – The President of Brazil, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, visits Argentina

1997 – The President of Argentina, Carlos Menem, makes a State visit to Brazil. The Strategic Alliance between Brazil and Argentina is formalized

1999 – The President of Brazil, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, makes a working visit to Argentina (June 7)

2002 – Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva makes his first trip to Argentina as President-elect (December 2)

2002 – The President of Argentina, Eduardo Duhalde, visits Brazil 

2003 – The President of Argentina, Eduardo Duhalde, visits Brazil (January)

2003 – The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Brazil, Celso Amorim, visits Argentina (February)

2003 – The President of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, visits Argentina on the occasion of the inauguration of the President of Argentina, Néstor Kirchner (May 25)

2003 – The Minister of Foreign Affairs and Worship of Argentina, Rafael Bielsa, visits Brazil (May)

2003 – The President of Argentina, Néstor Kirchner, visits Brazil. It is his first official trip abroad (June)

2003 – The President of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, makes a State visit to Argentina (October)

2004 – Presidents Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and Néstor Kirchner sign the Copacabana Act (March)

2006 – The President of Argentina, Néstor Kirchner, pays a State visit to Brazil (January)

2006 – The President of Argentina, Néstor Kirchner, visits Brazil. Bilateral and trilateral meetings are held with President Hugo Chávez (April)

2007 – The President of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, makes a working visit to Argentina (April)

2007 – The President-elect of Argentina, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, visits Brazil (November)

2007 – The President of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, attends the inauguration of the President of Argentina, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner (December)

2007 – Adoption of the Brazil-Argentina Integration and Coordination Mechanism – MICBA (December)

2008 – The President of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, makes a working visit to Argentina (February)

2008 – The President of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, visits Argentina with a business delegation (August)

2008 – The President of Argentina, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, makes a State visit to Brazil (September)

2009 – The President of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, makes a working visit to Argentina (April)

2009 – The President of Argentina, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, makes a working visit to Brazil (November)

2010 – The President of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, visits Argentina on the occasion of the celebrations of the Bicentenary of the Independence of Argentina (May)

2010 – The President of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, makes a working visit to Argentina (August)

2011The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Brazil, Antonio de Aguiar Patriota, makes a working visit to Argentina. It is his first official visit abroad (January 10)

2011The President of Brazil, Dilma Rousseff, makes a working visit to Argentina. It is her first official visit abroad (January 31)

2011The President of Argentina, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, makes a working visit to Brazil (July 29)

2011The President of Brazil, Dilma Rousseff, visits Argentina for the inauguration of President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner's second tenure (December 10)

2012The Minister of Foreign Affairs and Worship of Argentina, Héctor Timerman, visits Brazil (March 13)

2012The Minister of Foreign Affairs and Worship of the Argentine Republic, Héctor Timerman, visits Brazil (May 15)

2012  Working visit to Argentina by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Brazil, Antonio de Aguiar Patriota. Creation of the “Strategic Integration Dialogue" (October 11)

2012The President of Brazil, Dilma Rousseff, visits Argentina to participate in the 18th Argentinian Industrial Conference (November 28)

2013Visit to Brazil of the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Worship of the Argentine Republic, Héctor Timerman (Rio de Janeiro, February 19)

2013 – Working visit to Argentina by the President of Brazil, Dilma Rousseff (April 25-26)

2013The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Brazil, Luiz Alberto Figueiredo Machado, makes a working visit to Argentina. It is his first official visit abroad (September 19)

2014 – President Dilma Rousseff visits the city of Paraná (Argentina) on the occasion of the 47th Mercosur Summit (December 16-17)

2015Visit of Minister Mauro Vieira to Buenos Aires (February 10-12)

2015Foreign Minister Mauro Vieira and Minister for Development, Industry and Foreign Trade Armando Monteiro visit Buenos Aires (May 29)

2015 – Visit of the President of the Argentine Republic, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, to Brasília, on the occasion of the 48th Summit of Heads of State of MERCOSUR and Associated States (July 17)

2015Working meeting between President Dilma Rousseff and the President of the Argentine Republic, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner (July 17)

2015Visit of the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Worship of Argentina, Héctor Timerman, to Brasília (August 27)

2015Visit of the President-elect of the Argentine Republic, Mauricio Macri, to Brasília (December 4)

2015Visit of President Dilma Rousseff to Buenos Aires for the inauguration of the President of the Argentine Republic, Mauricio Macri (December 10)

2016Visit of Minister Mauro Vieira to Buenos Aires (January 16)

2016Working meeting between Minister Mauro Vieira and the Minister of Finance and Public Finance of Argentina, Alfonso Prat-Gay (Brasília, February 18)

2016Official visit of the Vice-President of Argentina, Gabriela Michetti (February 22-24)

2016 Visit of the Minister of Production and Development of Argentina, Francisco Cabrera (Brasília, April 25)

2016 – On his first trip abroad, Minister José Serra visits Buenos Aires, where he holds a working meeting with Minister Susana Malcorra and is received by President Mauricio Macri. Signing of the Memorandum of Understanding between Brazil and Argentine on the establishment of the Brazil-Argentina Political Coordination Mechanism (May 23)

2016 In the celebrations of the 200th anniversary of the Independence of the Argentine Republic, the Brazilian Government was represented by the Minister of Defense, Raul Jungmann, by the Head of the Institutional Security Cabinet of the Presidency, General of the Army Sergio Westphalen Etchegoyen, and by the Ambassador of Brazil in Buenos Aires, Everton Vieira Vargas (July 9)

2016  Visit of the President of the Republic, Michel Temer, to Buenos Aires (October 3)

2016Visit of the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Worship of the Argentine Republic, Susana Malcorra, to Brazil (Brasília, December 8)

2017State Visit of President Mauricio Macri to Brasil (February 7)

2017 – Visit of the Minister of Security of the Argentine Republic, Patricia Bullrich, to Brazil (Brasília and São Paulo, February 16-17)

2017Meeting of Mercosur Foreign Ministers and visit of Minister Aloysio Nunes Ferreira to Argentina (March 8-9)

2017First Meeting of the Brazil-Argentina Political Coordination Mechanism (Brasília, May 30)

2017The Minister of Foreign Affairs and Worship of Argentina, Ambassador Jorge Faurie, visits Brazil (July 14)

2018 – Visit of the Secretary General of Foreign Affairs to Argentina. First Meeting of the Brazil-Argentina Strategic Political Dialogue. Second Meeting of the Brazil-Argentina Political Coordination Mechanism (April 16)

2018Signing of the Memorandum of Understanding between Brazil and Argentina on Technical Regulations of the Automotive Industry (August 24)

2018Brazil-Argentina nuclear cooperation meeting [Join press release / Spanish] (November 7)

2018Signing of the Montevideo Declaration on Business Nuclear Cooperation between Brazil and Argentina (December 17) [Spanish]

2019 – The President of Argentina, Mauricio Macri, visits Brazil (January 16) [Joint declaration / Spanish] [Adopted acts]

2019 – Visit of the President of Brazil to Argentina (Buenos Aires, June 6)

2019 – Brazil-Argentina Trade Agreement for the Automotive Sector - Joint Statement from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Economy (October 3)




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