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Argentine Republic


Argentina is one of Brazil’s main political and economic partners. Bilateral relations are strategic to the regional and global insertion of Brazil. The construction of a political relationship of trust and cooperation with Argentina contributes to the establishment of a regional space of peace and cooperation. Together, Brazil and Argentina account for about two thirds of the territory, population and GDP of South America.

The process of political rapprochement between Brazil and Argentina, which began with the redemocratization of both countries in the 1980s, was the foundation of the South American integration project that led to the creation, in 1991, of the Common Market of the South (MERCOSUR). The maintenance and narrowing of relations with Argentina are of fundamental importance for the Brazilian strategy of promoting the economic and political strengthening of South America, with a view to the establishing the region as one of the centers of a multipolar world system.

Increasing bilateral economic integration has strengthened the economy and industry of both countries. Brazilian capital assets are present in different sectors of the Argentinian economy, such as mining, iron and steel, oil, banking, automotive, textile, footwear, agricultural machinery and civil construction. The presence of Argentinian capital in Brazil is also noteworthy.

Between 2003 and 2015, bilateral trade flow increased from US$ 9.24 billion to US$ 23,09 billion, a growth of 150%. In the same period, Brazilian exports to Argentina grew from US$ 4.56 billion to US$ 12,8 billion, an increase of 181%. In 2015, Argentina ranked third in destination of Brazilian exports.

The strong bilateral trade activity, marked by the high percentage of high value-added products, has important impacts on strategic sectors of both economies, especially industry. Among the areas benefited by the bilateral partnership, the automotive sector stands out. It has direct and indirect effects on the Brazilian economy as a whole, in fields as diverse as mining, iron and steel, chemistry, oil and gas, and the service sector (engineering, metalworking, administration, advertising and marketing, etc.).

In the political sphere, proximity with Argentina is an important pillar in the effort to construct a space of peace and cooperation around Brazil. The high density of political cooperation between the two countries is reflected in the frequent bilateral meetings and visits at presidential and ministerial level and the existence of the Brazil-Argentina Strategic Integration Dialogue, a high level mechanism devoted to addressing major matters of bilateral interest.

Brazil and Argentina are joined by a border line that extends for 1,261 km. The border integration policy is an essential dimension of the bilateral cooperation agenda. The Cooperation Commission for the Development of Border Areas (CODEFRO), established in 2011, is the highest bilateral forum of deliberation on binational border policies and for referral of demands raised in the context of the Brazil – Argentina Border Integration Committees, which meet annually in border localities of the two countries.

Chronology of Bilateral Relations

1821 – The Portuguese Government in Rio de Janeiro is the first to recognize the independence of Argentina

1822 – Antônio Manuel Correia da Câmara is appointed as Consul and Commercial Agent in the Plata region (“Correia da Câmara Mission”)

1823 – Argentina is the first country to recognize the independence of Brazil and to establish diplomatic relations with the Empire. The Argentine envoy Valentín Gómez presents the Brazilian chancellor a credential letter signed by Bernardino Rivadavia, recognizing the independence of Brazil (August 5), and is received by Dom Pedro I (August 11)

1825 – The Congress of Buenos Aires proclaims the reintegration of the Banda Oriental into Argentina. Argentina breaks relations with Brazil, which, in its turn, declares war. Beginning of the Cisplatine War

1828 – The Peace Convention that puts an end to the Cisplatine War and formalizes the independence of Uruguay is signed in Rio de Janeiro

1831 – Antônio Cândido Ferreira is appointed as Chargé d'Affaires and Consul-General to Argentina

1833 – Brazil recognizes the Argentinian rights over the Malvinas Islands, occupied by Great Britain

1850 – Rupture of diplomatic relations between Brazil and the Argentinian government of Juan Manuel de Rosas

1851 – The Covenant for offensive and defensive alliance against Rosas among Brazil, Uruguay and the Argentinian provinces of Entre Ríos and Corrientes is signed in Montevideo. Rosas declares war against the Brazilian Empire

1852 – Juan Manuel de Rosas is defeated by the coalition between Brazil, Uruguay and the Argentinian provinces of Entre Ríos and Corrientes

1856 – The treaty of Friendship, Trade and Navigation between Brazil and Argentina is signed, ensuring free navigation on the La Plata river

1864 – Beginning of the Paraguayan War

1865 – Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay sign the Treaty of the Triple Alliance

1870 – End of the Paraguayan War

1889 – Brazil and Argentina sign an Arbitration Treaty for the prompt settlement of the pending limits issue in the Palmas region

1889 – Argentina recognizes the republican regime in Brazil (November, 19th)

1895 – Arbitration on the Palmas issue. The verdict of the President of the USA, Grover Cleveland, favors Brazil

1898 – Boundary treaty signed by Brazil and Argentina, based on the 1895 arbitration verdict

1899 – The President of Argentina, Julio Roca, visits Brazil. irst official visit of a foreign Head of State to the country

1900 – The President of Brazil, Campos Sales, visits Argentina. IFirst official visit of a Brazilian Head of State abroad

1910 – The elected President of Argentina, Roque Sáenz Peña, visits Brazil, at the invitation of the Baron of Rio Branco

1915 – Foreign Minister of Brazil, Lauro Müller, visits Argentina and signs the “ABC Pact”, in which Chile also takes part

1922 – The delegation of Brazil in Buenos Aires is elevated to the category of Embassy

1935 – The President of Brazil, Getúlio Vargas, travels to the Plata region and makes an official visit to Argentina. Brazil and Argentina mediate the solution to the Chaco War

1961 – Uruguaiana Meeting between Presidents Jânio Quadros (Brazil) and Arturo Frondizi (Argentina), in which the Friendship and Consultation Covenant is signed

1969 – Signature of the Plata Basin Treaty by Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay

1972 – The President of Argentina, Alejandro Lanusse, visits Brazil and signs, with the President of Brazil, Emílio Médici, bilateral agreements on physical integration

1977 – Disagreements over the Itaipu Power Plant lead to the closure of the border between Brazil and Argentina. Trilateral talks on the construction of the plant are initiated

1979 – Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay sign the Tripartite Agreement on the Technical-Operative Coordination for the Hydroelectric Use of Itaipu and Corpus

1980 – The President of Brazil, João Baptista Figueiredo, visits Argentina. First visit by a Brazilian president since 1935

1980 – The President of Argentina, Jorge Videla, visits Brazil

1981 – Meeting between Presidents João Figueiredo and Roberto Viola on the border between Brazil and Argentina, in the city of Paso de los Libres

1982 – Brazil remains neutral in the Malvinas War, but recognizes Argentinian sovereignty over the Islands

1985 – Beginning of a rapprochement process. The “Declaration of Iguaçu” is signed by Presidents José Sarney and Raúl Alfonsín, at the border between the countries

1986 – The President of Brazil, José Sarney, makes a State visit to Argentina. Signing of the “Act for Brazilian-Argentine Integration” is signed, which establishes the Program for Integration and Economic Cooperation (PICE)

1988 – Signature of the Integration, Cooperation and Development Treaty, based on the PICE

1990 – Signature of the Buenos Aires Act by Presidents Fernando Collor and Carlos Menem. Brazil and Argentina decide to establish a common market by the end of 1994

1991 – Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay sign the Treaty for the constitution of the Common Market of the South (MERCOSUR)

1991 – Creation of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC)

1995 – Entry into force of the MERCOSUR Customs Union, with the adoption of a common external tariff (CET)

1996 – The President of Brazil, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, visits Argentina

1997 – The President of Argentina, Carlos Menem, makes a State visit to Brazil. The Strategic Alliance between Brazil and Argentina is formalized

2002 – The President of Argentina, Eduardo Duhalde, visits Brazil

2003 The President of Argentina, Eduardo Duhalde, visits Brazil (January)

2003 The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Brazil, Celso Amorim, visits Argentina (February)

2003 The President of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, visits Argentina for the inauguration of the President of Argentina, Néstor Kirchner (May)

2003 - The Minister of Foreign Affairs and Worship of Argentina, Rafael Bielsa, visits Brazil (May)

2003 – The President of Argentina, Néstor Kirchner, visits Brazil. It is his first official trip abroad (June)

2003  The State visit to Argentina by the President of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (October)

2004  Presidents Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and Néstor Kirchner sign the Copacabana Act (March)

2006  State visit to Brazil by the Presidente of Argentina, Néstor Kirchner (January)

2006  The President of Argentina, Néstor Kirchner, visits Brazil. Bilateral and trilateral meetings held with President Hugo Chávez (April)

2007 TheWork visit to Argentina by the President of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (April)

2007 The elected President of Argentina, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, visits Brazil (November)

2007 The President of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, attends the inauguration of the President of Argentina, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner (December)

2007 Adoption of the Brazil-Argentina Integration and Coordination Mechanism - MICBA (December)

2008 Work visit to Argentina by the President of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (February)

2008 The President of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, visits Argentina with a business delegation (August)

2008 State visit to Brazil by the President of Argentina, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner (September)

2009 – Work visit to Argentina by the President of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (April)

2009  – Work visit to Brazil by the President of Argentina, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner (November)

2010 The President of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, visits Argentina on the occasion of the celebrations of the Bicentenary of the Independence of Argentina (May)

2010 – Work visit to Argentina by the President of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (August)

2011 Work visit to Argentina by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Brazil, Antonio de Aguiar Patriota. It is his first official visit abroad (January 10)

2011Work visit to Argentina by the President of Brazil, Dilma Rousseff. It is her first official visit abroad (January 31)

2011Work visit to Brazil by the President of Argentina, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner (July 29)

2011The President of Brazil, Dilma Rousseff, visits Argentina for the inauguration of President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner's second tenure (December 10)

2012The Minister of External Relations and Worship of Argentina, Héctor Timerman, visits Brazil (March 13)

2012The Minister of External Relations and Worship of the Argentine Republic, Héctor Timerman, visits Brazil (May 15)

2012  – Work visit to Argentina by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Brazil, Antonio de Aguiar Patriota. Creation of the “Strategic Integration Dialogue" (October 11)

2012The President of Brazil, Dilma Rousseff, visits Argentina to participate in the 18th Argentinian Industrial Conference (November 28)

2013Visit to Brazil of the Minister of External Relations and Worship of the Argentine Republic, Héctor Timerman (Rio de Janeiro, February 19)

2013Work visit to Argentina by the President of Brazil, Dilma Rousseff (April 25-26)

2013Work visit to Argentina by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Brazil, Luiz Alberto Figueiredo Machado. It is his first official visit abroad (September 19)

2014 – President Dilma Rousseff visits the city of Paraná (Argentina) on the occasion of the 47th Mercosur Summit (December 16-17)

2015Visit of Minister Mauro Vieira to Buenos Aires (February 10-12)

2015Visit of Minister Mauro Vieira and of the Minister for Development, Industry and Foreign Trade, Armando Monteiro, to Buenos Aires (May 29)

2015 – Visit of the President of the Argentine Republic, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, to Brasilia, on the occasion of the 48th Summit of Heads of State of MERCOSUR and Associated States (July 17)

2015Work Meeting between President Dilma Rousseff and the President of the Argentine Republic, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner (July 17)

2015Visit of the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Worship of Argentina, Héctor Timerman, to Brasilia (August 27)

2015Visit of the President elect of the Argentine Republic, Mauricio Macri, to Brasilia (December 4)

2015Visit of President Dilma Rousseff to Buenos Aires for the inauguration of the President of the Argentine Republic, Mauricio Macri (December 10)

2016Visit of Minister Mauro Vieira to Buenos Aires (January 16)

2016Working meeting, in Brasilia, between the Minister Mauro Vieira and the Minister of Finance and Public Finance of Argentina, Alfonso Prat-Gay (February 18)

2016Official visit of the Vice-President of Argentina, Gabriela Michetti (February 22-24)

2016 Visit of the Minister of Production and Development of Argentina, Francisco Cabrera (Brasília, April 25)

2016 – On his first trip abroad, Minister José Serra visits Buenos Aires, when he keeps a working meeting with Minister Susana Malcorra and is received by President Mauricio Macri. Signature of the Memorandum of Understanding between Brazil and Argentine on the establishment of the Brazil-Argentina Political Coordination Mechanism (May 23)

2016 – In the celebrations of the 200th anniversary of the Independence of the Argentine Republic, the Brazilian Government was represented by the Minister of Defense, Raul Jungmann, by the Head of the Institutional Security Cabinet of the Presidency, General of the Army Sergio Westphalen Etchegoyen, and by the Ambassador of Brazil in Buenos Aires, Everton Vieira Vargas (July 9)

2016 – Visit of the President of the Republic, Michel Temer, to Buenos Aires (October 3)

2016 Visit of the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Worship of the Argentine Republic, Susana Malcorra, to Brazil (Brasília, December 8)

2017State Visit of President Mauricio Macri to Brasil (February 7)

2017Visit of the Minister of Security of the Argentine Republic, Patricia Bullrich, to Brazil (Brasilia and Sao Paulo, February 16-17)

2017Meeting of Mercosur Foreign Ministers and visit of Minister Aloysio Nunes Ferreira to Argentina (March 8-9)

2017First Meeting of the Brazil-Argentina Political Coordination Mechanism (Brasília, May 30)

2017Visit to Brazil of the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Worship of Argentina, Ambassador Jorge Faurie (July 14)

2018 – Visit of the Secretary-General of the Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Affairs to Argentina. I Meeting of the Strategic Political Dialogue Brazil-Argentina. II Meeting of the Brazil-Argentina Political Coordination Mechanism (April 16)

2018Signing of the Memorandum of Understanding between Brazil and Argentina on Technical Regulations of the Automotive Industry (August 24)

2018Meeting about nuclear cooperation Brazil-Argentina [press release / Spanish] (November 7)

 




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