People’s Republic of China
Established in 1974, diplomatic relations between Brazil and China have intensely evolved, assuming increasing complexity. The recent chronology of relations demonstrates the importance of the bilateral dialogue. In 1993, Brazil and China established Strategic Partnership, and in 2004, the China-Brazil High-Level Coordination and Cooperation Committee (COSBAN) was created. In 2010, the 2010-2014 Joint Action Plan (PAC) defining objectives, goals, and guidelines for bilateral relations was signed. Updated version of the plan, effective from 2015 to 2021, was signed by President Dilma Rousseff and Prime Minister Li Keqiang in May, 2015. In 2012, on the occasion of the visit of the Prime Minister at the time, Wen Jiabao, to Brazil, relations were raised to the level of ‘Global Strategic Partnership’, a Global Strategic Dialogue was established between the Ministers of Foreign Affairs, and the 10-Year Cooperation Plan (2012-2021) was signed.
Together with the Joint Action Plan, the 10-Year Cooperation Plan is one of the main guiding documents on bilateral relations, establishing long-term actions in key areas such as science, technology and innovation and spatial cooperation; energy, mining, infrastructure and transport; investments and industrial and economic cooperation; economic-commercial cooperation; and cultural cooperation and exchange between both societies. PAC, on its turn, defines objectives, concrete goals and directions for the bilateral cooperation, with views to broaden and deepen it in all its dimensions – bilateral, plurilateral and multilateral – with specific purposes and monitoring mechanisms for the Subcommittees of the High-Level Coordination and Cooperation Committee (COSBAN) and for the Global Strategic Dialogue (GSD).
In the terms of the Joint Communiqué, signed when diplomatic relations were established, Brazil recognizes that ‘the People’s Republic of China is the sole legal Government of China,’ and the Chinese Government confirms that ‘Taiwan is an inalienable part of the territory of the People’s Republic of China.’ Thereby, Brazil ceased to recognize Taiwan as a sovereign and autonomous government entity, breaking diplomatic relations with the island. Brazil supports the ‘One-China’ policy and peaceful efforts to the reunification of the Chinese territory, according to the Resolution No. 2758 of the UN General Assembly (1971), by which Beijing resumed its seat in the UN, including the Security Council.
After the establishment of diplomatic relations, in 1974, the Embassy of Brazil in Beijing and the Embassy of China in Brasília were opened. Brazil has Consulates General in Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Hong Kong. China has Consulates General in Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Recife.
In 1988, the CBERS Program (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite) was established to build and launch satellites, a pioneer project among developing countries in the high-tech field. Five satellites have been released since then (1999, 2003, 2007, 2013 and 2014). Signed in 2013, the 10-Year Space Cooperation Plan provides for the continuity the CBERS Program and expands space cooperation to other sectors, such as weather satellites, launch services, and staff training.
The highest permanent dialogue and bilateral cooperation forum is the China-Brazil High Level Coordination and Cooperation Committee (COSBAN), co-chaired by the Vice-President of the Republic of Brazil and, on the Chinese side, by the Vice Premier in charge of economic issues. Through its eleven Subcommittees and seven Working Groups, it deals with issues such as economic, financial and political relations; agriculture; energy and mining; scientific, technological and spatial cooperation, and cultural and educational exchange. Its third and most recent meeting was held in Guangzhou, in November 2013, and was co-chaired by the Vice-President Michel Temer and the Vice Premier Wang Yang. The other plenary sessions took place in Beijing (2006), Brasilia (2012) and Guangzhou (2013)
Since 2004, the exchange of high-level bilateral visits has greatly intensified. On the Brazilian side President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva visited China in 2004 and 2009; President Dilma Rousseff, in 2011, and the Vice-Presidents José Alencar (2006) and Michel Temer (2013). On the Chinese side, President Hu Jintao visited Brazil in 2004 and 2010 and President Xi Jinping in 2014; Vice Presidents Xi Jinping in 2009 and Li Yuanchao in 2015, and the Prime Ministers Wen Jiabao in 2012 and Li Keqiang in 2015.
China is, since 2009, Brazil's largest trading partner and has been stablishing itself as a major source of investments in the country. Trade flow between Brazil and China strongly increased between 2001 and 2015, rising from USD 3.2 billion to USD 66,3 billion. In 2009, China became not only the largest buyer of Brazilian exports, but also the main trade partner of Brazil, according to the criterion of trade flow. In 2012, China also became the leading supplier of products imported by Brazil.
In 2015, Brazil exported USD 35,6 billion to China and imported USD 30,7 billion from China (versus USD 40,6 billion and USD 37,3 billion in 2014, respectively), having as result a surplus in bilateral trade of USD 4,9 billion. Since 2009, Brazil has accumulated a USD 46 billion surplus with China.
China is one of the main sources of foreign direct investment in Brazil, particularly in the areas of energy and mining, iron and steel metallurgy, and agribusiness. A diversification of Chinese investments in Brazil, in areas such as telecommunications, automobiles, machinery, and banking services and infrastructure can also be observed. There are important Brazilian investments in China, in areas such as aeronautics, mining, food, engines, car parts, iron and steel metallurgy, pulp and paper, and banking.
Financial cooperation has grown in bilateral and multilateral levels. Several Chinese banks operate in Brazil and Banco do Brasil has an agency in Shanghai since May 2014, the first agency of a Latin American bank in China. In 2013, a currency swap agreement was signed, aiming at safeguarding bilateral trade in case of financial crisis. In June 2015, the two countries decided tocreate the Brazil-China Cooperation Fund for the Expansion of the Production Capacity, in the amount of USD 20 billion, in order to encourage investments in infrastructure and logistics, energy, mining, manufacturing, agriculture, among others, under the Framework Agreement for Investment development and Cooperation on Production Capacity between the Ministry of Planning and the Chinese National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), signed during the visit of Prime Minister Li Keqiang to Brasil (May 2015).
Brazil and China have worked together in several international mechanisms, such as BRICS, G20, and BASIC, groups that represent rapprochement and discussion arenas on various topics of the international agenda, such as economy, development, and climate change. In July 2014, during the 6Th BRICS Summit in Fortaleza, the New BRICS Development Bank and the Contingency Reserve Fund Agreement were created, which will broaden the channels for obtaining funds for development projects and protect member countries in cases of balance of payments imbalances. In April 2015, Brazil became a founding member of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).
Chronology of bilateral relations
1974 – Establishment of diplomatic relations (August)
1982 – Visit of the Minister of Foreign Affairs Ramiro Saraiva Guerreiro to China (March)
1984 – President João Batista Figueiredo visits China (May)
1984 – Foreign Minister Wu Xueqian visits Brazil (August)
1985 – Prime Minister Zhao Ziyang visits Brazil (November)
1988 – President José Sarney visits China (July)
1988 – Beginning of CBERS Program (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite) (July)
1990 – President Yang Shangkun visits Brazil (May)
1992 – Prime Minister Li Peng visits Brazil (June)
1993 – State Councillor and Minister of Foreign Affairsd Qian Qichen visits Brazil (March)
1993 – Prime Minister Zhou Rongji visits Brazil. Establishment of the Brazil-China Strategic Partnership (May/June)
1993 – President Jiang Zemin visits Brazil (November)
1995 – President Fernando Henrique Cardoso visits China (December)
1995 – Brazil endorses the inclusion of the PRC in the World Trade Organization (WTO)
1996 – Prime Minister Li Peng visits Brazil (November)
1998 – Minister of Foreign Affairs Luiz Felipe Lampreia visits China (November)
1999 – Launching of the CBERS-1 satellite (October)
1999 – Visit of Vice President Marco Maciel to China (December)
2000 – Foreign Minister Tang Jiaxuan visits Brazil (September)
2000 – The PRC becomes the largest trade partner of Brazil in Asia
2001 – President Jiang Zemin visits Brazil (April)
2003 – Launching of the CBERS-2 satellite (October)
2004 – Minister Celso Amorim visits China (February)
2004 – President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva visits the PRC (May)
2004 – Creation of the Brazil-China High-Level Commission for Coordination and Cooperation - COSBAN (May)
2004 – President Hu Jintao visits Brazil. Signature of Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in Trade and Investment, in which Brazil recognizes the status of China as a market economy (November)
2006 – 1st COSBAN meeting in Beijing, chaired by the Vice-President José Alencar on the Brazilian side and by the Deputy Prime-Minister Mme Wu Yi (March)
2006 – The Chairman of the PRC Congress, Wu Bangguo, visits Brazil (August)
2007 – Establishment of the Strategic Dialogue between the Foreign Ministries (April)
2007 – Launching of the CBERS-2B satellite (September)
2007 – 1st Brazil-China Strategic Dialogue Meeting, Beijing (November)
2008 – Visit to Brazil of Member of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China, He Guoqiang (July)
2008 – Visit of President Lula da Silva to China, to attend the opening ceremony of the Beijing Olympics (August)
2009 – Visit of Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi to Brazil (January)
2009 – Visit to Brazil of the Vice-President of the PRC, Xi Jinping, (February)
2009 – State visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to China (May 19)
2009 – Visit of the Deputy Minister of the Supreme People's Court, Hao Chiyong, to Brazil (May)
2009 – Visit of the President of the Supreme Court, Gilmar Mendes, to China (September)
2009 – Visit of the Chairman of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), Jia Qinglin, to Brazil (November)
2009 – China becomes Brazil's main trading partner
2010 – State visit to Brazil of President Hu Jintao, parallel to the 2nd BRICS Summit in Brasília, and signature of the Brazil-China Joint Action Plan 2010-2014 (April)
2010 – The Head Minister of the Institutional Security Cabinet, General Jorge Félix, visits China (April)
2010 – Minister of Defense of China, General Liang Guanglie, visits Brazil (September)
2011 – State visit of President Dilma Rousseff to China. Participation in the Brazil-China Business Seminar, the Brazil-China High Level Dialogue on Science, Technology and Innovation, and the 3rd BRICS Summit, in Sanya (April 12-16) [Joint Communiqué] [Adopted Acts] [Sanya Declaration]
2011 – Signature of the Joint Action Plan in Health Brazil-China 2011-2014 (October)
2011 – 6th G-20 Summit, in Cannes, France. Meeting of President Dilma Rousseff and President Hu Jintao parallel to the Summit (December)
2012 – 2nd Meeting of the Brazil-China High-Level Commission for Coordination and Cooperation (COSBAN), chaired on the Brazilian side by Vice-President Michel Temer and on the Chinese side by the Deputy Prime-Minister Wang Qishan (Brasília, February 13)
2012 – Visit of the Vice-Chairman of the National People's Congress Standing Committee, Wang Zhaoguo, to Brazil (March)
2012 – 4th BRICS Summit, in New Delhi, India. Meeting of President Dilma Rousseff and President Hu Jintao parallel to the Summit (March) [New Delhi Declaration]
2012 – Premier Wen Jiabao visits Brazil, parallel to the Rio+20 Earth Summit, in Rio de Janeiro. Signature of the 10-Year Cooperation Plan, elevation of the bilateral relationship to "Global Strategic Partnership" and establishment of the Foreign Ministers Global strategic Dialogue (Rio de Janeiro, June 21) [Joint Communiqué] [Signed Documents]
2012 – 7th G20 Summit, in Los Cabos, Mexico. Meeting of President Dilma Rousseff and President Hu Jintao parallel to the Summit (June)
2012 – The President of the Chamber of Deputies, Deputy Marco Maia, visits China (June)
2012 – The Vice Chairman of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, Ms. Zhang Meiying, visits Brazil (December)
2012 – China becomes the main importer of Brazilian products
2013 – Meeting of President Dilma Rousseff with the Chinese President Xi Jinping, parallel to the 5th BRICS Summit in Durban, South Africa (March)
2013 – Member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China and Secretary of the Beijing Municipal Committee of the Party, Guo Jinlong, visits Brazil (June)
2013 – Mission of the Minister Chief of the Civil Staff of the Presidency of Brazil, Gleisi Hoffmann, and of the Minister of Development, Industry, and Foreign Trade, Fernando Pimentel, to China (August)
2013 – Meeting of President Dilma Rousseff with the President Xi Jinping, parallel to the 8th G-20 Summit in Saint Petersburg (September)
2013 – Month of Brazil in China (September) and China in Brazil (October)
2013 – Official visit of Vice-President Michel Temer to China: participation in the opening ceremony of the 4th Ministerial Conference of the Macau Forum, in the 3rd COSBAN, and meetings with President Xi Jinping and Vice President Li Yuanchao (November 4-9)
2013 – Launching of the CBERS-3 satellite (December)
2014 – Official visit of the President of the House of Representatives, Henrique Alves, to China (April)
2014 – Meeting of President Dilma Rousseff and the President Xi Jinping, parallel to the 9th G-20 Summit in Brisbane, Australia (November)
2014 – Launching of the CBERS-4 satellite (December)
2015 – Visit of Vice President Mr. Li Yuanchao to Brazil to take part in the inauguration ceremony of President Dilma Rousseff (January)
2015 – Visit of the President of the Supreme Court, Minister Ricardo Lewandowski, to China (March/April)
2015 – Meeting between President Dilma Rousseff and President Xi Jinping parallel to the 7th BRICS Summit (July)
2015 – Meeting of BRICS Ministers of Foreign Affairs in New York, parallel to the 70th Annual Session of the United Nations General Assembly (September 29)
2015 – Visit to China of the President of the Superior Court of Justice (STJ), Minister Francisco Falcão (October/November)
2015 – Meeting of the BRICS Leaders in Antalya, Turkey, parallel to the G20 Summit (November 15)
2015 – Meeting between President Dilma Rousseff and President Xi Jinping parallel to COP 21 (November)
2016 – Visit of the Minister of Finance, Nelson Barbosa, to China (February)
2016 – 23rd BASIC Ministerial Meeting on Climate Change (Morroco, October 17)
2017 – Meeting of the BRICS Foreign Affairs Ministers on the sidelines of the UNGA (New York, September 21)