United Mexican States
Brazil's bilateral relations with Mexico are varied and important, especially in the fields of politics, integration, commerce, investment and cooperation, among others.
In the political field, Brazil and Mexico are partners in several global fora, such as the United Nations system (UN), the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), among many others. Example of coordination between Brazil and Mexico in international politics is the performances of the two countries in the G20-Trade and the G20-Finance. Another example is the partnership for the proscription of nuclear weapons, symbolized by the role of both countries in the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL).
Regionally, Brazil and Mexico are partners in numerous initiatives, such as the Organization of American States (OAS), the Latin American Integration Association (LAIA), the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC).
Trade between Brazil and Mexico confirms the importance of bilateral relations. In the ten years completed in 2014, the trade flow between the two countries grew by 93.7%, reaching US$ 9 billion in 2014. Industrial products accounted for 93.6% of the total Brazilian exports to Mexico.
In 2014, Mexico was the 11th trading partner of Brazil, which, in turn, featured as the 8th Mexican trading partner. Mexico was the 11th largest source of Brazilian imports and the 14th destination for national exports. For Mexico, the Brazil was the 8th biggest trading partner and the 6th largest in the country's trade balance surplus.
During the State visit of President Dilma Rousseff to Mexico on May 26, 2015, Brazil and Mexico decided to prioritize the expansion and deepening of the Economic Complementation Agreement n° 53 (ACE-53), which currently covers tariff preferences of nearly 800 items. With that, the two countries will seek to significantly expand their commercial relations, whether in the field of agricultural and industrial products with tariff reductions, or in the areas of services, government procurement, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, among others. The negotiations are carried out by a binational group that started working in July of 2015.
The stock of Mexican investments in Brazil, just above US$ 22 billion, according to data from 2013, makes the Brazilian market the main destination of Mexican investments in Latin America and second in the world, behind only the United States. Mexico occupies the 7th position among the FDI stocks in Brazil.
Brazilian companies are responsible for some of the largest private investments in Mexico, notably in the petrochemical, chemical and metallurgical industry. The stock of direct Brazilian investments in Mexico, US$ 1.4 billion, has increased in recent years. The consortium formed between BRASKEM and Mexican group IDESA stands out in its building of the petrochemical complex ("XXI Ethylene Project"), the largest private investment in course in Mexico, estimated at US$ 4.5 billion. GERDAU has a steel plant construction project, with investments estimated at US$ 600 million, in the State of Hidalgo.
On the occasion of the State visit of President Dilma Rousseff to Mexico on May 26, 2015, a Cooperation and Investment Facilitation Agreement (CIFA) was signed between the two countries. The CIFA signed with Mexico seeks to encourage reciprocal investment through an intergovernmental dialogue mechanism. Through the CIFA, there will be greater disclosure of business opportunities, exchange of information on regulatory framework and appropriate mechanism for the prevention and settlement of disputes. This is the third such instrument signed by Brazil, after Angola and Mozambique, and the first in Latin America.
Technical cooperation is another important aspect of relations between Brazil and Mexico. The bilateral technical cooperation program is of special interest due to intense exchange of experiences between the two countries, evidenced by the variety of activities involved. The program for the period 2011-2013 totaled 25 projects, being 9 of cooperation by Brazil, 8 of horizontal cooperation (which implies exchange of training), 6 of cooperation received from that country, and 2 of trilateral cooperation, involving third countries.
The Brazilian community in Mexico is estimated at 14 thousand people, mostly resident in the capital city and in the metropolitan region.
Chronology of bilateral relations
1822-1824 – First talks on establishing diplomatic relations
1830 – Establishment of diplomatic relations
1831 – Celebration of the Brazil-Mexico Alliance, Peace and Friendship Treaty
1922 – The diplomatic representations of the two countries are risen to Embassy level
2000 – The President-elect of Mexico visits Brazil
2002 – Official visit of the President of Mexico to Brazil
2003 – President Lula's official visit to Mexico
2006 – President-elect of Mexico visits Brazil
2007 – State visit of President Lula to Mexico
2007 – Minister Celso Amorim participates in the Mexican Council on Foreign Relations – COMEXI (Mexico City, November 28)
2008 – Meeting between the Presidents of Brazil and Mexico during the first Latin American and Caribbean Summit on Integration and Development (CALC), in Costa do Sauipe
2009 – Visit of President Felipe Calderón to Brazil. Signature of Technical and Scientific Agreements in the areas of biotechnology, nanotechnology and spatial technology (August 17)
2010 – Work Meeting between the Presidents of Brazil and Mexico
2011 – Meeting between the Presidents of Brazil and Mexico during the 66th General Assembly of the United Nations in New York
2012 – The President-elect of Mexico visits Brazil
2012 – Elements agreed by the Governments of Brazil and Mexico regarding the Modified Protocol of the Bilateral Appendix of ACE-55 (Mexico City, March 15)
2013 – Meeting between the Presidents of Brazil and Mexico during the CELAC Summit in Havana (Cuba)
2014 – Meeting between the Presidents of Brazil and Mexico during the CELAC Summit, in Santiago (Chile)
2015 – Meeting between the Presidents of Brazil and Mexico during the CELAC Summit in San José (Costa Rica)
2015 – State visit of President Dilma Rousseff to Mexico (May 26-27) [Signature of the Expanded commercial agreement between Brazil and Mexico] [Joint statement of Mutual Recognition] [Signature of the Cooperation and Investment Facilitation Agreement] [Joint Statement]
2015 – First Meeting for the broadening of the Brazil-Mexico Economic Complementation Agreement No. 53 (ACE 53) (Mexico City, November 10-12)
2016 – The Minister of Foreign Affairs, José Serra, visits Mexico, when he holds working meetings with Foreign Minister Claudia Ruiz Massieu and with the Secretary of Economy, Ildefonso Guajardo (July 25)
2017 – Minister Aloysio Nunes keeps a working meeting with his Mexican counterpart, Luis Videgaray, on the occasion of the 29th Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Organization of American States, in Washington (May 31)
2018 – Meetings of the Presidents of Mercosur and the Pacific Alliance (Puerto Vallarta, July 24)