Republic of Iraq
The first contact between Brazilian and Iraqi governments was held in 1935. In 1968, the Brazilian Embassy in Damascus (Syria) was concurrently accredited to Iraqi authorities. The resident Embassy of Brazil in Baghdad was inaugurated in 1972. The first Iraqi Ambassador to the Brazilian Government was appointed in 1971.
The complementarity between both economies boosted bilateral relations in the 1970s and 1980s. Brazil was one of the first countries to show solidarity with Iraq when of the decision to nationalize the oil companies operating in the country (1971). Despite the embargo imposed by developed countries, Brazil continued importing oil from Iraq.
During the Gulf War, the Brazilian Government followed the decision of the UN Security Council, which demanded that all its nationals (individuals and corporations) immediately left Iraq, and that contracts between Brazilian companies and the Iraqi Government were terminated. Although bilateral diplomatic relations were not broken, the Embassy in Baghdad was emptied of diplomatic staff and trade flows became insignificant.
In 2003, Brazil opposed the invasion of Iraq by troops of the "Coalition of the Willing", since it was not authorized by the UN Security Council. This position did not hold any sympathy for the Baathist regime - but rather the need for unconditional respect for the UN Charter and international law.
After a gap of 22 years, meetings of the Joint Commission Brazil-Iraq resumed in 2011. The Ninth Meeting of the mechanism was held in Baghdad in 2012, same year of the reopening of the Embassy of Brazil in Baghdad.
Within the context of Brazilian trade with the Arab world, Iraq is an important destination for Brazilian export and a major exporter of oil and oil products to Brazil.
Chronology of bilateral relations
1935 – The Minister of Justice and Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of Iraq, Jamal Baban, sends letter to the Brazilian Foreign Minister recognizing the Iraqi Red Crescent as the official organ of the Arab Government for the purposes of the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field (1929). This is the first official correspondence between both Governments
1939 – The first trade agreement between Brazil and the Kingdom of Iraq is signed, for the application of reciprocal treatment of most favored nation for the import of Iraqi and Brazilian either natural or manufactured products. The agreement expired in June 1977
1967 – Official establishment of diplomatic relations between Brazil and Iraq
1971 – Iraq appoints its first resident ambassador to Brazil
1971 – Signature of Commercial Cooperation Agreement between Brazil and Iraq in Baghdad. The agreement expired in July 1977
1978 – Mission of the Minister of Industry and Trade of Brazil accompanied by the Head of the Trade Promotion Department of the Foreign Ministry to Baghdad; signature of the contract for the construction of Railroad Baghdad-Al Kashat by Brazilian company
1979 – Vice-President of Iraq, Taha Ma’rouf, visits Brasília and is received by Brazilian Vice-President, Aureliano Chaves
1979 – 1st Meeting of the Joint Commission Brazil-Iraq, in Baghdad
1981 – Signature of the contract for the construction of highway Expressway No. 1 by Brazilian company
1981 – 2nd Meeting of the Joint Commission Brazil-Iraq, in Brasília
1982 – Signature of the Executive Program of Cultural, Scientific and Educational Cooperation
1982 – 3rd Meeting of the Joint Commission Brazil-Iraq, in Baghdad
1983 – The Minister of Foreign Affairs, Ramiro Saraiva Guerreiro, visits Baghdad. A Joint Ad Hoc Commission aiming at analyzing the disputes between Brazilian companies and Iraqi authorities is established. The decisions would be appreciated during the next meeting of the Joint Commission Brazil-Iraq
1984 – 4th Meeting of the Joint Commission Brazil-Iraq, in Brasília
1985 – 5th Meeting of the Joint Commission Brazil-Iraq, in Baghdad
1987 – 6th Meeting of the Joint Commission Brazil-Iraq, in Brasília.
1987 – The Minister of Commerce of Iraq, Mohammed Saleh, visits Brazil. Signature of Commercial Cooperation Protocol
1988 – The Secretary-General of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Paulo Tarso Flecha de Lima, visits Baghdad. Signature of Memorandum of Understanding incorporating Iraqi proposal for comprehensive settlement of trade disputes with Brazilian company
1988 – 7th Meeting of the Joint Commission Brazil-Iraq, in Baghdad
1991 – During the Gulf War, Brazil followed the decision of the UN Security Council demanding that all its nationals (individuals and corporations) immediately leave Iraq, and that all contracts between Brazilian companies and the Iraqi government should be terminated. On January 12, the Brazilian Embassy in Baghdad was emptied of its diplomatic staff
1994 – Iraqi Foreign Minister, Mohammed Said al Sahaf, visits Brasília and is received by Foreign Minister Celso Amorim. The Ministers addressed the revision of the sanctions regime of the UN Security Council against Iraq
2003 – In a statement, Brazil deplores the beginning of armed action in Iraq and recourse to force without express authorization of the UN Security Council
2005 – The President of Iraq, Jalal Talabani, visits Brasília, to attend the First Summit of the South America- Arab Countries (ASPA)
2011 – 8th Meeting of the Joint Commission Brazil-Iraq, in Brasília. The Iraqi delegation was led by its Deputy Foreign Minister, Ambassador Labeed Abbawi
2012 – Reopening of the resident Embassy of Brazil in Baghdad, after 21 years without diplomatic staff
2012 – Friendly football match between Brazil and Iraq is held in Sweden
2012 – 9th Meeting of the Joint Commission Brazil-Iraq, in Baghdad
2013 – Visit to Brasilia of mission of the Independent High Electoral Commission of Iraq to meet with authorities of the Supreme Electoral Court
2018 – Signature of the Memorandum of Understanding for the establishment of a Political Consultations mechanism between Brazil and Iraq (June 26)