Republic of Chile
Relations between Brazil and Chile are marked by intense and dynamic trade and business exchange. In the field of political coordination, in which the two countries aim to deepen relations, the good understanding and the adoption of common and moderate positions have been fundamental to the progress of regional integration. There is a common perception that the close ties observed between entrepreneurs from the two countries define bilateral relations and strengthen political and cooperation bonds between the two countries.
Bilateral investments grow year after year, benefiting the economies and societies of the two countries. Brazil concentrates the largest Chilean stock of foreign investment worldwide, which have exceeded USD 20 billion and accounted for the creation of almost 100,000 jobs for Brazilian citizens. Chilean companies established in Brazil operate in areas as diversified as paper and cellulose, retail and energy. Brazil has invested over USD 3 billion in the Chilean economy. Nearly seventy Brazilian companies operate in Chile in sectors including energy, financial services, food, mining, steel industry, civil construction and pharmaceuticals.
Brazil-Chile trade benefits from zero-tariff rates on 98% of the bilateral exchange. Chile is Brazil's third largest trading partner in Latin America. Between 2009 and 2013, trade increased 65.3%, reaching USD 8.8 billion last year. Brazil's top exports are petroleum, beef and bus bodies and chassis. In addition to being an important trading partner to Brazil, Chile has significant exchange with MERCOSUR. Trade flow between Chile and MERCOSUR reached USD 16.6 billion in 2013. For comparison purposes, in the same year, trade flow between Chile and the Pacific Alliance totaled USD 10.1 billion.
In the South American context, Chile is an early partner of Brazil. Chile was one of the main supporters of the creation of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) and the first president pro tempore of the organization, in 2008. The current Chilean Government considers regional integration one of its main priorities. Brazil and Chile have kept close coordination regarding issues being discussed at UNASUR, as in the case of the situation in Venezuela. In addition, the two countries believe that the different ongoing regional integration initiatives are convergent. Such approach strengthens UNASUR and intensifies bilateral relations.
In the past, Chile opened its doors to many Brazilians who, persecuted in their own homeland due to their political positions, had to leave the country and live in exile. The consolidation of democracy in the two countries promoted the development of cooperation in human rights, especially in the exchange of information aiming to clarify human rights violations that occurred during the military dictatorship in the two countries. Prospects of progress in this matter are promising in the short term.
Brazil and Chile have common interests in energy cooperation and rail integration. There is also enormous potential for cooperation in science and technology, particularly in the areas of aeronautical engineering, mining, biotechnology and astronomy. Some of the world's state-of-the-art telescopes are located in Chilean territory, with potential use in Brazilian astrophysical researches. There is intense bilateral cooperation in operations in Antarctica, which was demonstrated by the mutual support for the rescue of Brazilian researchers from Comandante Ferraz base, during the 2012 fire.
Chronology of Bilateral Relations
1836 – Diplomatic relations are established on April 22
1838 – The first bilateral treaty between the two countries (Treaty on Friendship, Trade, and Navigation) is signed on September 1
1879–1883 – War of the Pacific between Chile, Peru, and Bolivia. The Chilean Army occupies Lima in 1881. Brazil remains neutral during the conflict
1884–1886 – Brazil is chosen to chair, with casting vote, the courts of arbitration handling claims from neutral countries during the War of the Pacific against Chile
1915 – Argentina, Brazil and Chile sign the ABC Pact (officially called the Non-aggression, Consultation, and Arbitration Pact), which is not ratified by the Chilean Parliament
1922 – Legations of the two countries are elevated to Embassy status
1964–1973 – Significant number of Brazilian left militants seeks asylum in Chile during the military dictatorship in Brazil
1996 – Chile joins MERCOSUR as an associate member, in June
2004 – Start of Chile’s leading participation, together with Brazil, in the operations of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH)
2007 – President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva visits Chile. The presidents of Brazil, Chile, and Bolivia commit to inaugurate the Santos-Corumbá-Santa Cruz de la Sierra-Arica/Iquique interoceanic corridor during a trilateral meeting in La Paz (April)
2007 – Brazil, Chile, and Bolivia meet in La Paz to discuss the Santos-Arica bi-oceanic highway corridor (December)
2009 – President Michelle Bachelet visits São Paulo (July)
2010 – Brazil-Chile Bilateral Commission is established and the Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in Digital Terrestrial Television is signed on the occasion of the visit of Foreign Minister Celso Amorim to Santiago (February)
2010 – President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva visits Santiago to express solidarity following earthquake that struck Chile on February 27 (March)
2010 – The First Meeting of Brazil-Chile Bilateral Commission is held in Brasília, on the occasion of the visit of the Chilean Foreign Minister Alfredo Moreno. Complementary agreements are signed in the areas of health, social development, and sports (August)
2011 – The Second Meeting of Brazil-Chile Bilateral Commission is held in Santiago, on the occasion of the visit of Foreign Minister Antonio de Aguiar Patriota. Acts are signed in the areas of digital television, culture and education (April 1)
2014 – The Minister of Foreign Affairs, Luiz Alberto Figueiredo Machado, visits Santiago (March)
2014 – President Dilma Rousseff visits Chile to participate in the inauguration ceremony of President Michelle Bachelet (March 10-12)
2015 – The Minister of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Mauro Vieira, makes an official visit to Chile, when he holds work meetings with President Michele Bachelet, Foreign Minister Heraldo Muñoz and other authorities of the Chilean government (April 17)