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RECONHECIMENTO MÚTUO DA CACHAÇA COMO PRODUTO TIPICAMENTE BRASILEIRO E DO UÍSQUE BOURBON/TENNESSEE COMO PRODUTO TIPICAMENTE ESTADOUNIDENSE

(Versão original em inglês)

April 9, 2012
His Excellency Fernando Damata Pimentel
Minister of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade
Gabinete do Ministro
Esplanada dos Ministérios, Bloco J, 6° andar
CEP 70053-900
Brasília – DF – Brazil

Dear Minister:

I have the honor to confirm the following understandings reached between representatives of the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Federative Republic of Brazil (the “Parties”) regarding certain distinctive products:

A. The United States shall endeavor to publish a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in which it will propose to promulgate a regulation or regulations that would provide that Cachaça is a type of rum that is a distinctive product of Brazil, and that the sale in the United States of any product as Cachaça is not permitted unless it has been manufactured in Brazil in accordance with the laws and regulations of Brazil governing the manufacture of Cachaça. The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking would further propose that Cachaça need not be labeled as “rum.” The Parties note the following difference in their respective classifications of Cachaça: the United States proposes to classify Cachaça as a type of rum, whereas, according to Brazilian law, Cachaça is a type of Aguardente de Cana.

B. If, following the publication of the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, the United States publishes a Final Rule announcing that it will promulgate a regulation or regulations of the type referred to in Paragraph A, Brazil shall, within thirty (30) days thereafter, recognize Bourbon Whiskey and Tennessee Whiskey, the latter being a straight Bourbon Whiskey authorized to be produced only in the State of Tennessee, as distinctive products of the United States. In accordance with such recognition, Brazil shall not permit the sale in Brazil of any product as Bourbon Whiskey or Tennessee Whiskey, unless it has been manufactured in the United States in accordance with the laws and regulations of the United States governing the manufacture of Bourbon Whiskey and Tennessee Whiskey. (This Paragraph also applies to these products when they are spelled as “Bourbon Whisky” or “Tennessee Whisky.”)

C. I have the honor to propose that this letter, and your letter in reply confirming that your Government shares these understandings, shall together constitute an agreement between our two Governments, to enter into force on April 9, 2012.

Sincerely,

Ambassador Ron Kirk
United States Trade Representative

April 9, 2012


The Honorable Ron Kirk
United States Trade Representative
600 17th Street, NW
Washington, DC 20508

Dear Ambassador Kirk:

I have the honor to refer to your letter of April 9, 2012, which reads as follows:

I have the honor to confirm the following understanding reached between representatives of the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Federative Republic of Brazil (the “Parties”) regarding certain distinctive products:

A. The United States shall endeavor to publish a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in which it will propose to promulgate a regulation or regulations that would provide that Cachaça is a type of rum that is a distinctive product of Brazil, and that the sale in the United States of any product as Cachaça is not permitted, unless it has been manufactured in Brazil in accordance with the laws and regulations of Brazil governing the manufacture of Cachaça. The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking would further propose that Cachaça need not be labeled as “rum.” The Parties note the following difference in their respective classifications of Cachaça: the United States proposes to classify Cachaça as a type of rum, whereas, according to Brazilian law, Cachaça is a type of Aguardente de Cana.
B. If, following the publication of the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, the United States publishes a Final Rule announcing that it will promulgate a regulation or regulations of the type referred to in Paragraph A, Brazil shall, within thirty (30) days thereafter, recognize Bourbon Whiskey and Tennessee Whiskey, the latter being a straight Bourbon Whiskey authorized to be produced only in the State of Tennessee, as distinctive products of the United States. In accordance with such recognition, Brazil shall not permit the sale in Brazil of any product as Bourbon Whiskey or Tennessee Whiskey, unless it has been manufactured in the United States in accordance with the laws and regulations of the United States governing the manufacture of Bourbon Whiskey and Tennessee Whiskey. (This Paragraph also applies to these products when they are spelled as “Bourbon Whisky” or “Tennessee Whisky.”)
C. I have the honor to propose that this letter, and your letter in reply confirming that your Government shares these understandings, shall together constitute an agreement between our two Governments, to enter into force on April 9, 2012.

I have the honor to confirm that my Government shares the understandings expressed in your letter and that your letter and this reply shall together constitute an agreement between our two Governments, to enter into force on April 9, 2012.

Sincerely,

Fernando Damata Pimentel
Minister of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade
 

1 - MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING ON THE AVIATION PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE FEDERATIVE REPUBLIC OF BRAZIL AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

2 - MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE FEDERATIVE REPUBLIC OF BRAZIL AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA TO SUPPORT STATE AND LOCAL COOPERATION

3 – MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE FEDERATIVE REPUBLIC OF BRAZIL AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TECHNICAL COOPERATION ACTIVITIES IN THIRD COUNTRIES TO IMPROVE FOOD SECURITY

4 - U.S.-BRAZIL BILATERAL JOINT COMMISSION MEETING ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COOPERATION MARCH 12-13, 2012

5 - MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN THE MINISTRY OF CITIES OF THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF BRAZIL AND THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE FIELDS OF SUSTAINABLE HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT

*****

MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING ON THE AVIATION PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE FEDERATIVE REPUBLIC OF BRAZIL AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

The Government of the Federative Republic of Brazil

and

The Government of the United States of America,
hereinafter referred to as “the Participants”,

Recognizing the importance and significant contribution of civil aviation to the socioeconomic development of their States,

Acknowledging the existing partnership between the two countries in different aspects of civil aviation,

Acknowledging the mutual desire to strengthen and expand the cooperation between the two countries in the field of civil aviation,

Desiring to establish an adequate framework to handle all cooperation initiatives between the two countries toward the development of an efficient, safe and sustainable civil aviation sector, and

Recalling the Joint Statement issued on the occasion of the Second Meeting of the U.S.-Brazil Global Partnership Dialogue, which envisioned the creation of an Aviation Program and the joint recommendation made by the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum calling for the establishment of a broader strategic cooperation on aviation between the United States and Brazil,

Intend to establish the U.S.-Brazil Aviation Partnership (AP) as follows:

Section 1
Objectives of Cooperation

1. The Participants intend to expand and deepen the cooperation between the two countries on civil aviation on the basis of understanding and mutual benefits.

2. The Participants intend to facilitate the liaison between governmental agencies of both countries in order to develop mutually beneficial cooperation initiatives.

3. The Participants also intend to increase private sector cooperation and awareness, creating mutual economic opportunities and promoting investments. To this end, the Participants intend to promote private sector cooperation initiatives, especially those aimed at increasing efficiency, productivity and capabilities of the civil aviation sectors in each country.

Section 2
Fields of Cooperation

4. Subjects of joint interest under this Memorandum of Understanding may include:
a) Infrastructure;

b) Air Transport, including the following significant areas:
i. Safety;
ii. Security; and
iii. Airworthiness.

c) Air Traffic;

d) Environment and Biofuels;

e) Aeronautical Industry; and

f) Other fields as mutually determined.

5. Bearing in mind the above mentioned fields, cooperation may include, but not be limited to:

a) Regulation and Public Policies;
b) Airport Planning and Development;
c) Safety and Security Management;
d) Air Navigation;
e) Research and Development;
f) Innovation and New Technologies;
g) Sustainability;
h) Logistics and Air Cargo;
i) Training and Education;
j) Knowledge sharing focused on the management of events generating high density air traffic;
k) Expert exchanges on best practices and information sharing; and
l) Any other matters mutually determined.

Section 3
Implementation and Coordination

6. A Coordinating Committee intends to meet at least twice a year in order to prioritize upcoming activities, assess progress and measure results achieved under this Memorandum of Understanding. On the Brazilian side, the Coordinating Committee is to be led by the Ministry of Development, Industry and External Trade with participation by the Ministry of External Relations, the Secretariat of Civil Aviation (SAC), the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation and the Ministry of Education, among others. On the U.S. side, the Coordinating Committee is to be led by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency with participation by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, the Transportation Security Administration, the U.S. Department of Commerce and the U.S. Department of State.

7. Working groups are to be created to develop specific cooperation initiatives under this Memorandum of Understanding. The working groups should be encouraged to meet regularly, in an effort to advance issues of mutual interest.

8. The executive bodies responsible for the daily administration of this Memorandum of Understanding are to be, on the Brazilian side, the Ministry of External Relations and the Ministry of Development, Industry and External Trade, and on the U.S. side, the U.S. Trade and Development Agency, in coordination with the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration and the Transportation Security Administration.

9. Representatives from the Brazilian and the U.S. private sectors would be invited, as appropriate, to participate in meetings and activities carried out under this Memorandum of Understanding. As needed, the private sector may meet to advance the topics of the Aviation Partnership and to report back to the two governments.

Section 4
Forms of Cooperation

10. The Participants should facilitate direct cooperation between governmental agencies of both countries in order to increase awareness of areas of mutual interest and to identify cooperation instruments to best advance the bilateral dialogue, based on mutual understanding, respect and benefit.

11. The Participants should also support interaction between the private and public sectors (including state-owned companies) of the United States and Brazil in order to stimulate mutual investment and other forms of economic cooperation, subject to the domestic laws and policies of the United States and Brazil.

12. The above mentioned cooperation may take the form of, inter alia, exchange of views and best practices, expertise and know-how; the provision of technical and managerial cooperation; capacity building; joint projects and facilitation of cooperation between enterprises and/or organizations of both countries. Such cooperation is to be subject to their respective national laws and other sector specific rules, regulations and guidelines.

Section 5
Financing

13. The Participants intend to decide on the methods of funding for each project in accordance with each country’s internal laws and procedures. All activities under this Memorandum of Understanding are to be subject to the availability of funds and to further arrangements between appropriate institutions. This Memorandum of Understanding is not intended to entail a commitment or obligation of specific funds by either side.

Section 6
Confidentiality of Information

14. Neither Participant should make available any confidential information, documents and data derived from the cooperative activities under this Memorandum of Understanding to a third party without prior written permission from the other Participant.

Section 7
Modifications

15. Modifications to this Memorandum of Understanding may be made at any time in writing by mutual consent of the Participants.

Section 8
Consultations

16. Any issue arising out of the interpretations and/or implementation of this Memorandum of Understanding should be settled amicably by negotiation or consultation between the Participants.

Section 9
Commencement and Discontinuation

17. This Memorandum of Understanding comes into effect on the date of its signature.

18. This Memorandum of Understanding may be discontinued at any time. The Participant discontinuing this Memorandum should endeavor to provide three months notice in writing prior to the intended date of discontinuation. The discontinuation should not affect the implementation of on-going activities or projects which have been decided prior to the date of its termination, unless the Participants decide otherwise.

19. This Memorandum of Understanding does not create any rights or obligations under international or domestic law.

Signed in duplicate in Washington, on 9th of April 2012 in the Portuguese and English languages.

*****

MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE FEDERATIVE REPUBLIC OF BRAZIL AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA TO SUPPORT STATE AND LOCAL COOPERATION


The Government of the Federative Republic of Brazil

and

The Government of the United States of America (Hereafter referred to as “the Participants”),

Determined to enhance their partnership and friendly and mutually beneficial relations on all levels;

Recognizing the importance of a sound partnership between state and local governments of the United States and Brazil (also referred to as ‘subnational entities’) as an instrument to assist in the achievement of shared objectives and enhancement of mutual benefits;

Affirming that increased subnational cooperation contributes to the strengthening of U.S.-Brazil bilateral relations and the fostering of friendship and understanding between both countries;

Equally recognizing this form of cooperation as complementary to the ongoing bilateral dialogues and undertakings between the United States and Brazil;

Bearing in mind that the Government of the United States and the Government of Brazil possess exclusive authority over all matters related to their respective relations with foreign countries and international organizations;

Desiring to offer subnational entities frames of reference for their own initiatives, within the boundaries of their legal jurisdiction, with the objective of ensuring that those initiatives are consistent with and complementary to the policies of their respective federal governments;

Invoking the principles of reciprocity, mutual respect, and mutual benefit that guide their own relations, which should conduct the relationship between their subnational entities;

Have reached the following understandings:

General Principles

1. The Participants intend to encourage subnational cooperation, both directly between subnational entities and/or through their national or regional associations, with the aim of reinforcing the ties between the two countries consistent with the foreign and domestic policies of the Participants.

2. The Participants affirm their determination to increase and assist when appropriate cooperation between their respective subnational entities in all sectors of common interest and assert their readiness to consider new mechanisms to encourage such collaboration.

3. The Participants intend to provide their support, where appropriate, to the efforts of their respective state and local governments to engage with their counterparts in cooperative activities pertaining to areas of mutual interest, such as education, cultural and technical exchange, economic growth, sustainable development, democracy, and social inclusion.

4. The Participants intend to assess the need for further commitments on decentralized and subnational cooperation to support the cooperative activities of their subnational governments and their associations.

5. In order to assess the implementation of this Memorandum of Understanding, the Participants propose to meet at least once a year in Brazil or in the United States alternately or as otherwise requested by either Participant.

Activities

1. Cooperation between subnational entities may occur directly between such entities and/or their associations or, when deemed appropriate by the Participants, through participation in the bilateral cooperation activities of the Participants.

2. Activities and initiatives consistent with this Memorandum of Understanding may include, but are not limited to:

a) Promoting state-to-state, city-to-city, or other local entity consultations, as well as consultations between state and local government associations on issues of mutual concern.

b) Encouraging state and local government associations of the two countries to engage their counterparts in consultations and technical exchanges in areas of mutual concern, such as institution building, outreach and member support.

c) Promoting direct technical exchange and sharing of best practices in areas pertaining to their administrative and managerial responsibilities, such as public services, infrastructure, transportation, social inclusion, police and law enforcement, environmental sustainability, waste management, public parks, and tourism promotion.

d) Encouraging and facilitating closer relationships between subnational entities in order to enhance and expand cooperative efforts in education as outlined in the Memorandum of Understanding on Education (the U.S.-Brazil ‘Partnership on Education’) signed in Washington on March 30, 2007.

e) Encouraging state and local officials to share best practices and knowledge in preparation for the 2014 FIFA World Cup and 2016 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games and other future global events, as outlined in the Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation to Support the Organization of Major Global Sporting Events, signed in Brasilia on March 19, 2011.

f) Promoting state and local participation in efforts related to the U.S. – Brazil Joint Action Plan to Eliminate Racial and Ethnic Discrimination and Promote Equality signed in Brasilia on March 13, 2008 and the Memorandum of Understanding for the Advancement of Women signed in Brasilia on March 3, 2010.

General Provisions

1. Sharing of information between the Participants is to be in accordance with their respective national laws and regulations.

2. This Memorandum of Understanding does not create rights or obligations under international or domestic law.

3. Implementation of this Memorandum of Understanding is to be coordinated by the United States Department of State, on behalf of the United States, and the Ministry of External Relations on behalf of Brazil.

4. The Participants intend to implement this Memorandum of Understanding upon signature. Either Participant may, at any time, notify the other of its decision to discontinue implementation of this Memorandum of Understanding, by means of a three-month notice of such discontinuation, via diplomatic channels.

5. This Memorandum of Understanding may be modified by the Participants in writing.

6. The Participants intend to address through direct consultations any difference of views regarding the implementation or interpretation of this Memorandum of Understanding.

Signed in Washington, this 9th day of April, 2012 in duplicate, in the Portuguese and English languages.

*****

MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE FEDERATIVE REPUBLIC OF BRAZIL AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TECHNICAL COOPERATION ACTIVITIES IN THIRD COUNTRIES TO IMPROVE FOOD SECURITY


The Government of the Federative Republic of Brazil
and

The Government of the United States of America (hereinafter referred to as the "Governments"),

Considering that:

Brazil and the United States have a long term partnership on technical cooperation established by the Agreement on Technical Cooperation signed and entered in force on December 19, 1950, as amended on January 8, 1952;

Brazil and the United States further strengthened and updated this commitment to development cooperation through a Memorandum of Understanding for the Implementation of Technical Cooperation Activities in Third Countries signed on March 3, 2010;

The Governments of the two countries have implemented many initiatives over the last two years to strengthen and expand such cooperation, including through technical cooperation activities to improve food security in Mozambique;

Both Governments anticipate that further coordination and harmonization of development assistance activities under way in food security by each Government will lead to greater efficiencies and better results;

Therefore, both Governments have reached the following understanding:

SECTION I
Purpose and Designations

1. The intent of this Memorandum of Understanding (hereinafter referred to as “MOU”) is to set forth principles or guidelines under which the United States and Brazil may collaborate to improve food security, a vital component of our mutual goal to sustainably reduce global poverty and hunger.

2. This MOU does not impose targets for actions for the two Governments, each being free to suggest cooperation projects or coordination of activities whenever deemed necessary or appropriate.

3. In order to carry out the food security cooperation activities provided for in this MOU, the Governments hereby designate the following entities as lead agencies within their respective governments:

a) Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC-Agência Brasileira de Cooperação) of the Brazilian Ministry of External Relations; and
b) United States Agency for International Development (USAID);

both of which are hereinafter referred to as the "Agencies." In the design and implementation of activities under this MOU, these agencies intend to consult and collaborate closely with other agencies within their respective governments with expertise in food security.

SECTION II
Definition of Food Security

1. For purposes of this MOU, food security is defined as when all people at all times have both physical and economic access to sufficient food to meet their dietary preferences and needs for a productive and healthy life. A family is considered food secure when its members do not live in hunger or fear of hunger.

2. For purposes of this MOU, food security is defined as having four main components: availability, access, utilization, and stability. Families and individuals require a reliable and consistent source of quality food, as well as sufficient resources to purchase it. People must also have the knowledge and basic sanitary conditions to choose, prepare, and distribute food in a way that results in good nutrition for all family members. Finally, the ability to access and utilize food must remain stable and sustained over time.

SECTION III
Programs and Activities

1. The Governments, making full use of the best practices of the Agencies in implementing development cooperation, intend to implement activities jointly and in coordination with the governments of selected beneficiary, third countries with critical needs in food security.

2. The main priorities for ensuring food security concern accelerating agricultural growth and productivity for all socio-economic groups and improving nutritional status, especially for women and children.

3. Joint programs and activities intended to improve food security may encompass:

a) Technological innovation, transfer, and dissemination, such as supporting applied research for improved food crop varieties and animal species, sustainable intensification of agriculture and development of climate change-resilient agriculture, or promoting appropriate equipment and best practices for on-farm and post-harvest uses.
b) Capacity development in sectors critical for food security, including exchanges of Brazilian, American, and third-country experts to relevant technological institutions in Brazil, the U.S., and third-countries, thereby facilitating training, and supporting enhancement and strengthening of relevant higher-education programs within relevant fields.
c) Interventions to strengthen market performance and improve value chains, including input and output markets.
d) Interventions to enable increasing numbers of farmers to diversify their production systems, access regional and international markets, and obtain access to credit and agricultural inputs.
e) Partnerships with the private sector to facilitate and leverage business investments, and expand access to innovations and technology.
f) Programs and activities to strengthen social protection systems and productive safety nets for food-insecure groups and individuals, and to enable increasing numbers of households to become self-sufficient through agriculture.
g) Attention to cross-cutting priorities, particularly the impact of food security programs and activities on gender, nutrition, natural resources management, and climate change, which are critical to long-term sustainability of food security programs.
h) Additional activities and investments in areas related to food security to be designed jointly by the Governments.
i) Monitoring and evaluation to assess the effectiveness of and learn from the programs and activities above.

4. For any activity contained within this MOU, the terms outlined in the March 3, 2010 MOU for Trilateral Cooperation apply regarding funding, the establishment of a Steering Committee, monitoring and evaluation, and publicity. The Steering Committee intends to meet periodically as needed but at least once per calendar year.

5. A Working Group is to be established in each third country composed of representatives from each of the three governments to oversee the implementation of the Food Security MOU. The Working Group is to be co-chaired by individuals designated by the Authorized Representatives of the Governments (Section IV). The Working Group intends to meet periodically as needed, but at least once per calendar year. The Working Group is to be responsible for the following:

a) Finalization of agreements or other documents between the Governments as needed for activities to commence in the third country.

b) Review of programmatic activities, both proposed and ongoing.

c) Oversight of any joint program and activity design.

d) Periodic performance evaluations and progress reviews.

e) End of program and activity impact assessments.

6. Specific third-country activities may be announced through non-binding Fact Sheets and Press Releases as jointly decided and published by each of the three governments.

SECTION IV
Authorized Representatives

1. The Government of the United States appoints the USAID Assistant to the Administrator for the Bureau for Food Security as its primary representative for implementation of this MOU, or the Assistant Administrator’s designee. In addition, USAID may draw upon the expertise and resources of other Agencies with food security expertise to assist in the implementation of this MOU.

2. The Government of Brazil appoints the Director of ABC, Ministry of External Relations, as its primary representative for implementation of this MOU, or the Director’s designee. In addition, ABC may wish to draw upon the expertise and resources of other Agencies to assist in the implementation of this MOU.

3. Each Government may, by written notice to the other, identify additional representatives authorized to represent that Government for all purposes other than modifying this MOU. Each Government may notify the other, in writing, of changes in its authorized representatives.

SECTION V
Modifications

This MOU may be modified in writing by the mutual decision of the two Governments.

SECTION VI
Settlement of Disputes

Any differences that may arise concerning the interpretation and/or application of this MOU should be resolved through diplomatic channels.

SECTION VII
Rights and Obligations

This MOU does not create rights or obligations under International Law.

SECTION VIII
Discontinuation

Either Government may suspend or discontinue this MOU, in whole or in part, but should endeavor to provide a least six month advance notice to the other Government of its intentions to do so. In the event of suspension or partial discontinuation, such notice should specify affected activities. Discontinuation of this MOU discontinues any responsibilities of Governments to provide financial or other resources to implement projects or activities mutually determined under this MOU.

SECTION IX
Signature and Commencement

Activities under this MOU are intended to commence on the date it is signed.

Signed at Washington, in duplicate, this 9th day of April, 2012, in the English and Portuguese languages.

*****

U.S.-BRAZIL BILATERAL JOINT COMMISSION MEETING ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COOPERATION - MARCH 12-13, 2012


The third Meeting of the Brazil – U.S. Joint Commission on Science & Technology Cooperation took place on the 12th and 13th of March, 2012 at Itamaraty Palace, Brasilia. The meeting was chaired by Minister Marco Antonio Raupp, Minister of Science, Technology and Innovation of Brazil and Dr. John P. Holdren, Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy of the United States of America.

On March 12th, delegations from both countries convened in four working groups covering; i) innovation; ii) prevention and mitigation of natural disasters; iii) ocean science, technology and observatories, iv) measurement standards, v) and a fifth working group on Public Health met on March 9, 2012. The results from discussions by the working groups are included in this Action Plan.

At the end of the sessions, each working group decided on an action plan to be implemented from 2012 to 2013 in the following areas:

Innovation

The Innovation working group was well attended on both sides and included private industry representatives as well as U.S. government and Brazilian government officials. The Council on Competitiveness co-chaired the group for the U.S. with NSF, reinforcing the importance of public-private partnerships in innovation. Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP – Brazilian Innovation Agency), from the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI), and the Ministry of External Relations (MRE) co-chaired the group for the Brazilian side.

The working group decided on the following action items:

1. Explore university-industry partnerships, focusing particularly on industries with a presence in both countries, which may be suitable candidates for future enhanced partnerships.

2. Establish an ongoing exchange of best practices between Brazil and the U.S. through actions such as:
a. Invite Program Managers from agencies such as CNPq, CAPES, ABDI, EMBRAPII and FINEP, to spend short-term visits at NSF and other U.S. Government agencies to familiarize themselves and engage with NSF and other agencies’ programs related to innovation, focusing particularly on SME, understanding technological risks, R&D, venture capital and metrics.

b. Exchange information and policies about the regulatory framework for innovation in knowledge-intensive areas, both in Brazil and in the U. S., such as nanotechnology and biotechnology.

3. Leverage and support existing public-private innovation partnerships, for example,

a. Commercial Dialogue.
b. US-Brazil CEO Forum.
c. MBC-ABDI-Council on Competitiveness (CoC).

4. Support and strengthen the dialogue between the Brazilian Confederation of Industries – Brazilian Business Innovation Mobilization (CNI-MEI – Business – industrial leaders) by working with American counterparts with the help of institutions such as the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and U.S. Department of Commerce. (Lead Agency - DoC, U. S.; MDIC/ABDI, Brazil)

5. Help to support, together with Brazilian agencies CAPES, CNPq, and FINEP, a multidisciplinary “Frontiers of Science and Engineering” workshop involving outstanding young scientists and engineers from both sides and organized by the respective Academies of Science and Engineering of both countries.

6. Establish a working group to implement the above actions that will meet at the next JCM to report out on progress.

Disaster Management

The Disaster Management Working Group was well attended with representatives from thirteen U.S. agencies and nine Brazilian agencies. Since the representatives had expertise in both science and technology fields and civil defense, the Working Group divided into two sub working groups - Science and Technology collaborations with Brazil's CEMADEN and Science and Technology collaborations with Brazil's Civil Defense Secretariat.

The co-chairs for the first sub working group were Dr. Reinhardt Fuck from CEMADEN and Ms. Jean Weaver from USGS. The first sub working group focused on exchange of scientific models, data, and technological assets concerning the two major types of disasters that Brazil faces, floods and landslides.

The co-chairs for the second sub working group were Dr. Armin Braun from the Civil Defense Secretariat and Mr. Joel Wall from DHS S&T. The second sub working group focused on opportunities for the U.S. interagency to collaborate with Brazil's Civil Defense Secretariat. Areas of mutual interest that were discussed include environmental disaster (flood/landslide) management, health issues related to incident management, special event planning and preparedness to include interagency training and exercises aimed at enhancing incident response at the local/state/national level, and shelters and mortuary affairs.

The two sub groups reconvened for a final report out. The key areas addressed were observation assets (data, innovative technology, and remote sensing), models and applications (floods, landslides, and drought), and capacity building (special event/incident command protocols, Geographic Information System (GIS) tools for flood monitoring, participatory risk and vulnerability workshops, and public health surveillance).

Two impediments to cooperation were identified and discussed. Participants agreed that there needs to be a better understanding of each country’s priorities, experiences, and expertise in disaster management. Participants also discussed the difficulty in obtaining funding for joint meetings and workshops, and decided to look into ways in which each country can make this more efficient.

The top four priority items for consideration in the final “Action Plan” are the following:

1. Training workshop on GIS Tool for Flood Inundation Modeling (dependent on funding);

2. Training workshop on risk and vulnerability participatory process (dependent on funding);

3. Targeted visits by Brazilian delegation to appropriate emergency operations centers in the U.S. for exchanging expertise in integrated risk management, communication protocols, and incident command expertise and training opportunities;

4. Identify key counterpart points of contact from both U.S. and Brazilian agencies to continue technical exchanges and send to Jean Weaver by June 1, 2012.

Brazilian agencies intended to send their points of contact to Jean Weaver, Acting Director, International Programs and Regional Specialist for Central America/South America/Caribbean, USGS, by June 1, 2012. The Brazilian agencies also intended to identify the workshops in which they have interest in pursuing, at which time funding mechanisms are to be discussed.

Potential areas for future collaboration were identified. These areas include:

1. Interchange of observation assets such as:
Complete archives of Landsat imagery for Brazil;
High resolution digital elevation datasets (30 meters);
Pursue the potential to improve the bandwidth transfer rate of GeoNetcast sensors in collaboration with NOAA;

2. Technical Exchange of Modeling Processes:
Transfer of NASA-USGS Realtime Landslide prediction models for regional applications in Brazil;
USGS GIS Tool for Flood Inundation Modeling;
Remote sensing applications for drought monitoring as applied in the Famine Early Warning System;
National Weather Service precipitation forecasting and modeling capabilities.

3. Capacity Building (to include but not limited to):
Integrated risk management and communication protocols
Incident command expertise and training
Participatory risk and vulnerability workshops process:
CDC – focused public health surveillance and response capacity building;
FEMA HAZUS infrastructure inventory model;
DHS S&T - Information exchange concerning capabilities, operational requirements, and technology transition/transfers across all Homeland/Civil Security domains.

Ocean Science, Technology, and Observatories

The working group on Ocean Science was co-chaired by Dr. Gustavo Goni from NOAA (US) and by Dr. Janice Trotte-Duhá from MCTI (Brazil). The long history of collaboration between oceanographic Brazilian and American Institutions was highlighted during the working group presentations. Discussions during the meeting led to the establishment of three Action Items to allow the continuation of the current strong collaboration and to enhance the cooperation to cover gaps and to initiate new enterprises that have been identified in research, technology, and operations.

The following are three activities that the members of the Working Group decided upon:

1. Enhancement of Oceanographic Observations.
Collaborate in the maintenance and enhancement of the current targeted and sustained ocean observations for climate, weather, ecosystem studies (For example, the South Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation array at 35S, continue the eXpendable BathyThermograph transect between Rio de Janeiro and Ilha de Trinidade, the PIRATA array, CLIVAR hydrographic sections, pCO2 systems, coral reef monitoring, etc).

The members of the Working Group decided that the U.S. should provide training opportunities to Brazilian technicians on current, new, and emerging technologies, such as Underway CTDs, deep ocean observations data retrieval systems, pCO2 systems, coral reef monitoring stations, among others.

This Working Group endorsed:

a. Bilateral support for the South Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (SAMOC) and South American Climate Change (SACC) Programs, and;
b. U.S. and Brazilian agencies participation to continue with their commitments with the Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA)

2. Research and Engineering Collaboration.
Encourage and maintain close scientific and technological partnerships between U.S. and Brazilian government agencies and universities, in particular to investigate the role of the ocean on weather patterns in Brazil and regional impacts of climate on sea level and ecosystems, and to help improve and/or develop oceanographic observational platforms to make the observing platforms logistically manageable and cost efficient. The US intendes to initiate collaboration with Brazil to advance cooperative and research developmental activities that including the transition of mature scientific products into operations. For this, both the U.S. and Brazil intend to seek funding opportunities to contribute with travel funds to cover the trip of 2-3 Brazilian scientists and managers to visit the U.S. and learn about institutional paradigms and procedures regarding research and operations.

3. Scientific and Technical Opportunities.

Support and enhance current scientific exchange by providing support to graduate students, early career scientists, technicians, and senior researchers to work with scientists at U.S. and Brazilian governmental and university oceanographic institutions.

The objectives presented under this Working Group can be greatly enhanced by the possibility offered by the program Science Without Borders. It is recommended for the Brazilian side to seek participation of the science and research sector of the Brazilian Navy. Additional topics were identified, which included the exchange of knowledge on sea floor mapping science and techniques.

In order to establish and follow the implementation plan, the members of the Working Group have decided to establish a standing Working Group on ocean science, ocean observations, and technology.

Measurement Standards

The Measurement Standards working group was co-chaired by Ms. Magdalena Navarro from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Dr. Kevin Geiss from the US Air Force, and Mr. Jorge A.P. Cruz and Dr. Wanderley de Souza from the National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO). Both NIST and INMETRO are charged by their respective governments with promoting innovation and industrial competitiveness by developing and advancing cutting edge measurement science (metrology) to facilitate the development and dissemination of standards and technology in ways that enhance economic security and improve quality of life. Given the expanding responsibilities of both institutions, collaboration and benchmarking of measurement methods and standards in strategically important areas are mutually beneficial.

NIST and INMETRO decided to continue to advance cooperative activities in chemical, physical, and engineering measurement standards as first set out upon in the 2009 MOU signed by NIST and INMETRO. These Institutes intend to expand their work on measurement science, standards and data needs for biofuels (including aviation biofuels and biomass), the environment, smart grid, and bioscience/health with an emphasis on examining industry needs and government roles. Brazil has approached NIST for collaboration in these areas given their importance in preventing technical barriers to trade.

NIST and INMETRO intend to continue information exchange and cooperation in the following areas:

1. Biofuels:

a. Research and Data for Next Generation of Biofuels made from new feedstock and using different fuel blend;
b. Thermophysical and Thermochemical property data to support more efficient development and use of cellulose-derived biofuels;
c. Sustainability metrics for renewable fuel development;
d. Investigate collaboration to include reference methods, reference materials and Thermophysical property data of Aviation Biofuels;
e. Brazil participation at the 4th International Conference on Biofuels Standards to take place at NIST in November 2012. The organizers (NIST, INMETRO and European Metrology Research Program of the European Commission [EC]) intend to also invite the Department of Energy (DOE), Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative (CAAFI), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), US Air Force and Industry, and their counterparts in EC and Brazil to this workshop.

2. Smart Grid: in the U.S., NIST has the coordination role for the development of a framework to achieve interoperability of smart grids devices and systems, which includes the definitions of protocols and standards for information management. INMETRO has been working with ABINEE (Brazilian Electrical and Electronics Industry Association) and ABNT (Brazilian Association for Technical Standards) with the goal of establishing standards and protocols for smart meter networks. Therefore NIST invited INMETRO to participate in the Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP) sub-committees. The INMETRO research team is to collaborate in the development of cybersecurity standards and bring expertise in technologies and equipments that could be used in Brazil.

3. Bioscience and Health:
b. Staff visits and information sharing concerning:
- Standards for Lab Medicine;
- Medical Imaging Standards;

4. Nanotechnology and GHG: NIST and INMETRO to explore future collaboration opportunities in nanotechnology and Greenhouse Gases (GHG) measurements.

5. Scientific exchange: Exchange of junior scientists, senior scientists and post docs between NIST and INMETRO in areas of mutual interest.

The representative of the U.S. Department of Defense highlighted the importance of discussing the signing of the Master Information Exchange Agreement between the Brazilian Ministry of Defense and the U.S. Department of Defense for the bilateral exchange of Research & Development information which should also include biofuels.

Public Health

The Public Health working group met on March 9, 2012. Five U.S. agencies and ten Brazilian agencies participated in the working group. The group discussed highlights of ongoing areas of collaboration including a Joint Action Plan to Eliminate Racial Disparities (JAPER), participation of NIH and CDC in “Science without Borders”, Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) partnership in training for polio eradication and immunization initiatives against other vaccine preventable diseases, The Latin American Cancer Research Network, collaborations between U.S. CDC and Brazil SVS, and the Implementing Arrangement for the Working Group on Public Health.

Impediments to current cooperation were discussed, including; challenges in prioritizing specific collaborative activities among the many proposed, the need to identify “champions,” on both sides to serve as focal points for specific collaborative activities, and the need to establish timelines and indicators and identify funding for collaborative activities.

Highlights of ongoing areas of collaboration discussed in this session include:

1. Joint Action Plan to Eliminate Racial Disparities (JAPER)—exchange of information and visits by experts to discuss racial and ethnic health disparities;

2. Participation of NIH and CDC in “Science without Borders”—plans are underway for CDC and NIH to host post-doctoral fellows to work on public health and biomedical subjects;

3. Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) partnership in training for polio eradication and immunization initiativers against other vaccine preventable disease—US CDC and Brazil SVS are working together to improve immunization in Lusophone Africa and Haiti;

4. The Latin American Cancer Research Network—ongoing collaboration on the study of breast cancer;

5. Collaborations between US CDC and Brazil SVS—ongoing work on influenza; evaluation and monitoring of HIV/AIDS programs; surveillance and prevention of noncommunicable diseases; and other topics;

6. Implementing Arrangement for the Working Group on Public Health discussions regarding steps needed to finalize the terms and language of the arrangement.

Additionally, the working group identified potential areas for future collaboration to include:

1. CDC and NIH to host post-doctoral students as part of “Science without Borders”;

2. Establish linkages between the Brazil Ministry of Health and the CDC/Emergency Operations Center to exchange information on public health emergencies preparedness and response;

3. Parallel funding for and collaboration in joint basic, clinical and translational research activities;

4. Trilateral cooperation to support the Public Health Institute in Mozambique and to increase coordination between US and Brazilian immunization efforts in Haiti and elsewhere

On March 13th, Brazilian representatives presented an outline for three additional areas of bilateral engagement moving forward under the Brazil-U.S. Joint Commission:

1. Biomedicine and Life Sciences

2. Nanotechnology

3. Information Technologies and Communications (ICT)

The Brazilian delegation presented an overview of the status of research and development in the biotechnology, nanotechnology and ICT sectors in Brazil. In regards to biomedicine and life sciences, Brazil proposed the establishment of a specific bilateral Working Group, within the JCM, that should define activities in these areas. The new WG plans to present the results of its activities at the fourth JCM.

In the field of nanotechnology, both delegations decided that a Brazilian and an American team of specialists and governmental officers would meet on March 30, 2012, during the “International Symposium on Assessing the Economic Impact of Nanotechnology” seminar, to be held in Washington D. C., on the 27th and 28th of March, 2012. Participants plan to discuss their respective research priorities, infrastructure networks, and existing interactions, and then to explore possible topics, approaches, and mechanisms for future cooperation and collaboration.

Regarding ICT, the U. S. Embassy in Brazil intends to help organize a meeting between Brazilian and American governmental officers and representatives from industry and academia, on the occasion of a visit to be paid by an American ICT delegation to Brazil in the upcoming weeks. The meeting(s) are to provide an opportunity to discuss ways and means for future bilateral cooperation in this field.

Women In Science

Participants from the U.S. State Department and the University of Oregon and the Special Secretariat of Policies for Women in the Presidency of the Republic of Brazil gave presentations on the participation of women in science and technological research programs and activities.

Building on the strong bilateral engagement under the U.S.-Brazil Memorandum of Understanding on the Advancement of Women, and as a follow on to the jointly-sponsored event at the 2011 UN Commission on the Status of Women, “Changing Mindsets: New Approaches to Advance Women and Girls in Science,” the U.S. and Brazil highlighted the progress each country has achieved to advance women in science and outlined best practices for recruiting, retaining and advancing women in science through enhanced participation by women and girls in exchange programs and by strengthening networks of women scientists to facilitate collaboration and enhance mentorship opportunities. The U.S. and Brazil discussed the importance of working together on the advancement of women in science and decided to have future collaboration.

This Action Plan is an integral part of the third meeting of the Brazil – U.S Joint Commission on Science and Technology Cooperation, which was held March 12 – 13, 2012, in Brasília, and is approved by the Working Groups and by the Heads of Delegations, Doctor Marco Antonio Raupp, Minister of Science, Technology and Innovation and Doctor John P. Holdren, Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy.

Washington, April 9th, 2012.

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