The Fifth European Union-Brazil Summit was held in Brussels on 4 October 2011. The EU was represented by the President of the European Council, Mr. Herman Van Rompuy and the President of the European Commission, Mr. José Manuel Durão Barroso. High Representative/Vice President Mrs. Catherine Ashton, European Commissioner Vice President Mr, Antonio Tajani, European Commissioner Mrs. Androulla Vassiliou, and European Commissioner, Mr. Karel De Gucht also attended. The Federative Republic of Brazil was represented by the President, Mrs. Dilma Rousseff, accompanied by Minister of External Relations, Ambassador Antonio de Aguiar Patriota, Minister of Culture, Mrs. Anna De Hollanda, Minister of Development, Industry and Trade, Mr. Fernando Pimentel, Minister of Communications, Mr. Paulo Bernardo, Minister of Science, Technology and Innovation, Mr. Aloizio Mercadante, Minister of Sports, Orlando Silva, and Minister of Social Communication, Mrs. Helena Chagas.
Leaders reaffirmed the values and principles shared by the EU and Brazil which find expression in their Strategic Partnership, highlighting their commitment to the promotion of peace and international security, the strengthening of democracy and the rule of law, the respect of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all and the promotion of sustainable development with social inclusion and environmental protection. The EU and Brazil reiterated the importance of an effective multilateral system, centered on a strong United Nations, as a key factor in the tackling of global challenges.
They agreed that the EU and Brazil will further deepen the political dialogue in order to generate a greater convergence of positions on key global challenges and in major international conferences and Summits. The EU and Brazil will also strive to enhance dialogue on human rights and to strengthen the dialogue on security matters, including transversal challenges to security such as corruption, money laundering and drugs trafficking, both bilaterally and in the international and multilateral context.
They exchanged views on the international economic situation and on the state of their respective economies. In this context, both sides reaffirmed their strong commitment to make of the G20 summit in Cannes a success and to send a strong signal of unity and determination to achieve ambitious and concrete results. They agreed on the need to make concerted efforts to support strong, sustainable, balanced and inclusive growth in the context of the G20 Framework for Growth, to ensure the effective reform of financial markets, efficient commodity markets, and appropriate reforms of the international monetary system.
They underlined the importance of employment and the social dimension of globalization, and highlighted the opportunities for growth that may be created by the progressive development of the green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication, to be discussed in the Rio+20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development. In this respect, they highlighted their joint commitment to ensuring the success of the Rio +20 United Nations conference on Sustainable Development to be held in Rio de Janeiro on 4-6 June 2012.
They emphasized their shared vision on the crucial role that higher education, academic cooperation and mobility as well as scientific research, technology and innovation, play to promote rapid and sustainable growth and increase productivity and employability. They decided to enhance EU-Brazil dialogue and cooperation in these fields, building on existing policy instruments and programmes, such as the EU Erasmus Mundus and Marie Curie, and Brazil’s “Science Without Borders” mobility scheme. They decided to launch a platform for dialogue and exchange to foster academic mobility and cooperation between Brazil and the EU.
Leaders reaffirmed their commitment to the successful outcome of the World Trade Organization’s Doha Development Round. They also confirmed their willingness to keep working towards an ambitious, comprehensive and balanced conclusion of the Round, and, in line with G-20 commitments, to resist protectionism and refrain from raising trade and investment barriers.
Both sides recognized the importance of achieving the UN Millennium Development Goals and the imperative to reduce global poverty. They expressed their intention to work closely together to strengthen their coordination on international cooperation and aid effectiveness, and stressed the importance of the Development Cooperation Forum of ECOSOC and of the High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness in Busan, Korea (November/December 2011). Both sides will support the international community in fostering a global partnership for development.
On climate change, Leaders highlighted the importance that the EU and Brazil work together bilaterally and in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change for greater international cooperation to achieve an ambitious, and comprehensive outcome of the multilateral negotiations engaging all countries through a balanced effort that respects common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, with a view to holding global average temperature within 2° C above preindustrial levels. They reinforced climate change cooperation by formally launching a self-standing EU-Brazil Climate Change Dialogue.
The Summit outlined energy as one of the building blocks of the EU-Brazil Partnership. Leaders welcomed that EU and Brazil are leading global efforts on the use of renewable energy sources and that regular exchanges take place on bioenergy. They also welcomed enhanced cooperation on energy efficiency and safety. The EU and Brazil noted the importance of stable and transparent energy markets and the need for continuous efforts in energy access and sustainability, which are crucial elements for global economic growth. They agreed to reinforce co-operation in the multilateral context, namely in the context of the G20, the Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP) and the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC).
As regards foreign policy issues, Leaders discussed the developments in Northern Africa and the Middle East and Libya and Syria in particular. They expressed grave concern at the current situation in Syria and agreed on the need to continue urging the Syrian authorities to put an end to the violence and to initiate a peaceful transition to democracy. They stressed the importance that the UN Security Council and the UN Human Rights Council remain actively seized of the matter.
On Libya, they highlighted the importance of contributing to the efforts of the international community in the framework of the UN towards a successful and nationally-owned process of transition, in which democratic principles, justice and human rights are fully respected. They decided to assess possible ways of cooperation between the EU and Brazil in the process of reconstruction and stabilisation of the country.
On the Middle East Peace Process, the EU and Brazil remain committed to an urgent resumption of negotiations between the parties. Leaders noted that any steps and positions taken in the coming weeks should be aimed at helping to achieve this aim. The EU and Brazil reiterated the shared aim of a comprehensive solution to the conflict, leading to two states living side by side in peace and security and mutual recognition.
Leaders emphasised their commitment to promoting human rights and fundamental freedoms for all and discussed how to intensify existing consultations and coordination within the Human Rights Council (HRC), in the III Committee of the United Nations General Assembly, and in other UN fora. They welcomed and supported the preliminary discussions between the EU High Representative/Vice President and Brazil’s Minister for External Relations aimed at identifying specific issues and themes of common interest which could generate joint initiatives and strengthened cooperation. In this respect, they highlighted the EU and Brazil’s interest in, inter alia, access to food, women and children’s rights including access to education, fighting against torture, racism and xenophobia, and moratorium on the death penalty. They expressed willingness to provide technical assistance and capacity-building to interested third countries through triangular cooperation to support them in the implementation of the Universal Periodic Review mechanism and the recommendations issued thereof.
Leaders also reviewed the state of EU-Mercosur relations and confirmed their strong commitment towards achieving an ambitious, balanced and comprehensive EU-MERCOSUR Association Agreement.
Leaders welcomed the constant intensification of EU-Brazil relations and expressed their satisfaction with the steady and important progress made in the implementation of the Brazil-European Union Joint Action Plan 2009-2011. They endorsed the new Joint Action Plan for the period 2012-2014 which shall serve to further widen the scope and reinforce the intensity of EU-Brazil relations.
Leaders expressed satisfaction on the positive development of their trade and investment flows. They agreed to reinforce the bilateral dialogue on investment and trade and to continue facilitating the exchange of information on public and private investment opportunities. In this respect, they took note of the recommendations of the V EU-Brazil Business Summit and underlined the importance of a reinforced dialogue between their respective business communities.
Leaders noted the importance of continuing to involve the civil society in the bilateral dialogue and in this context they welcomed the declaration of the fourth meeting of the Brazil-EU civil society Round Table between the Brazilian Council for Economic and Social Development and the European Economic and Social Committee held in Brazil on 26-27 April 2011. Leaders noted the intention of the Round Table to expand its activities to contribute to the promotion of sustainable development.
They welcomed the imminent conclusion of a EUR 500 million loan agreement between the European Investment Bank (EIB) and the Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Economico e Social (BNDES) for projects in the renewable energy and the energy efficiency sectors.
They also hailed the signature of three Letters of Intent between the European Commission and the Federative Republic of Brazil. The first one intends to facilitate tourism flows between the EU and Brazil in the framework of the “50 000 tourists” pilot initiative aimed at facilitating tourism flows between South America and Europe in the low seasons and to strengthen European identity, as well as the establishment of a dialogue on tourism-related matters. The second one addresses the establishment of a structured space policy dialogue that will enable discussions and cooperation across a broad range of civil space activities, and paves the way for the possible establishment of an EU/Brazil cooperation agreement on Global Navigation Satellite Systems. The third one aims at strengthening the scientific cooperation between the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission and the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation of Brazil in the areas of natural disaster prevention and crisis management, climate change and sustainable management of natural resources, energy, food security, biotechnologies, information and communications technology, and nanotechnology.
Leaders stressed the EU and Brazil’s common cultural heritage and reaffirmed their commitment to further cooperation on culture between the EU and Brazil to the benefit of their peoples, within the framework of the Joint Declaration on Culture signed by the European Commission and the Ministry of Culture of Brazil in May 2009. They expressed satisfaction for the signature in the margins of the Summit of the Joint Programme on Culture 2011-2014 focused on cultural diversity, the development of the cultural and creative economy and its industries and cultural heritage.
Finally, the EU and Brazil, welcomed the signature of the EU-Brazil short-stay visa waiver agreements for diplomatic and service passport holders and for ordinary passport holders in November 2010, as well as the entry into force on 1 April 2011 of the short-stay visa waiver agreement for diplomatic and service passport holders. They stressed the importance of the entry into force of the agreement for ordinary passport holders at the earliest.
The European Union and Brazil agree to construct a comprehensive strategic partnership by:
• Promoting peace and comprehensive security through an effective multilateral system;
• Enhancing the Economic, Social and Environmental Partnership to promote
• Promoting regional cooperation;
• Promoting science, technology and innovation;
• Promoting people-to-people exchanges.
The relations between the EU and Brazil will continue to be enhanced on the basis of annual dialogues at the highest level and regular Summits and Ministerial meetings. Such meetings will notably address global challenges and crises that threaten the stability and sustainable development of societies and economies around the world. Senior Official meetings and the European Union - Brazil Joint Committee meetings will contribute to the preparation of the Summit and Ministerial meetings as well as to the monitoring of progress on the ongoing dialogues and the implementation of the Joint Action Plan. This Joint Action Plan has a life span of three years and is due to be revised ahead of the EU-Brazil Summit in 2014. Progress will be reported to the Summits.
I. PROMOTING HUMAN RIGHTS AND INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY THROUGH AN EFFECTIVE MULTILATERAL SYSTEM
1. Promoting human rights and democracy and upholding international justice
Brazil and the EU are firmly committed to promoting and protecting all human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to development and to strive for the full protection and promotion in all our countries of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights for all. Moreover, both are strongly committed to the principles of democracy and respect for the rule of law. Both Parties reaffirm that the most serious crimes of concern to the international community should not go unpunished and that their prosecution should be ensured by measures at either the domestic or international level, in full compliance with the principles of due process. In this connection both Parties reaffirm the importance of the International Criminal Court in deterring crimes against humanity, war crimes and genocides, fighting impunity and contributing to lasting peace and reconciliation. Based on these shared values, Brazil and the EU will further intensify their relationship to strengthen their effective implementation and work together to promote them at the international level.
To this end, Brazil and the EU will:
• Continue to hold regular human rights consultations, both on multilateral and bilateral issues at appropriate levels in Geneva, New York, Brussels and Brasilia, as well as in the context of the High Level Political Dialogue between Brazil and the EU. This would allow for a dialogue aiming at a greater mutual understanding and a definition of common stances. In particular, human rights consultations will: (1) assess the main challenges concerning the respect for human rights, democratic principles and the rule of law, (2) advance human rights and democracy policy priorities and (3) identify and whenever possible coordinate policy positions on relevant issues in international fora;
• Encourage an EU-Brazil civil society forum on human rights protection and respect for democratic principles, with the objective of promoting better understanding of mutual concerns at the level of non-state actors;
• Identify and promote specific cooperation projects aimed at achieving tangible results in this sphere, with a view to promote human rights, including those of the individuals belonging to the most vulnerable groups;
• Cooperate on human rights issues in developing countries through triangular cooperation, for instance by using existing instruments such as the EC Agreement with the Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries (CPLP);
• Work together to achieve universality and preserve the integrity of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court;
• Cooperate with a view to reinforcing the credibility, the independence and effectiveness of the International Criminal Court and promoting universality of the Rome Statute, taking into account the outcome of the Review Conference of the Statute.
2. Strengthening the multilateral system
As global actors in a multipolar world, the EU and Brazil concur that the best way to deal with global issues is through a strengthened multilateral system placing the United Nations at its centre. They reiterate their commitment to a comprehensive reform and revitalization of the UN in order to reinforce its democratic nature, representativeness, transparency, accountability and efficiency. To that end, Brazil and the EU recognize the need to pursue the reform of the UN system and of the main UN bodies, among them the General Assembly, ECOSOC and the Security Council with a view to enhancing the efficiency, representativeness, transparency, accountability, and effectiveness of the system.
The Parties reiterate the political importance and strategic significance they confer to the multilateral system and understand that the UN must be equipped with the means necessary to achieve the maintainance of peace and security and to deal effectively with challenges such as the promotion of human rights, gender equality, children’s rights, social inclusion, climate change and sustainable development, fight against poverty and hunger, energy security, migration, world trade, disarmament and non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, fight against terrorism.
To this end, Brazil and the EU agree to:
• Maintain the High Level Political Dialogue on all issues of mutual interest, regional and international, and make full use of opportunities for contacts between Brazilian Ministers and their EU counterparts on issues of mutual relevance;
• Continue to collaborate in international fora and to consult on themes of the agendas of multilateral meetings so as to promote reciprocal support and eventually develop joint initiatives. To this end, Permanent Representatives in New York, Geneva and other UN capitals will hold regular consultations, as appropriate, on issues prior to the UN General Assembly, its specialized agencies and bodies' meetings;
• Establish a High Level Dialogue on UN Matters;
• Work together on negotiations and implementation of the outcome of major international conferences and Summits as appropriate, including in human rights, security, global health, food safety and security, trade, environment, sustainable development, and social and labour policies;
• Continue to advance the work on the reform of the United Nations.
3. Disarmament, non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and security dialogue
Brazil and the EU agree to work together to address the issues of disarmament, nonproliferation and arms control, in particular regarding nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and their means of delivery, trafficking of small arms, light weapons and ammunition. They agree on the importance of complying with obligations under existing international disarmament and non-proliferation treaties.
To this end, they will:
• Support and promote the full implementation of their existing commitments assumed under the international non-proliferation and disarmament treaties and agreements and other relevant international obligations to which they are parties, bearing in mind the three main objectives of the Non-Proliferation Treaty: non-proliferation, disarmament and the right to develop nuclear energy for peaceful purposes;
• Take steps to sign, ratify, or accede, as appropriate, and fully implement other relevant international instruments;
• Cooperate in promoting the early entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and in seeking the immediate launching of negotiations in the Conference on Disarmament on a Treaty banning the production of Fissile Material for nuclear weapons and other nuclear explosive devices, as well as to achieve progress on other central issues of the agenda of the Conference, in particular the prevention of an arms race in outer space, negative security assurances and nuclear disarmament;
• Cooperate on non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction as well as their means of delivery including through implementing UNSC Resolution 1540 (2004), ensuring full compliance with existing national and international obligations and promoting the accession to and implementation of relevant international instruments;
• Further develop cooperation in the prevention of and fight against the illicit trafficking of WMD-related materials;
• Cooperate on developing effective national systems of export control, controlling export and transit of WMD-related materials, including effective end-use control on dual use of technologies;
• Improve the overall coordination in the disarmament and non-proliferation area and examine risks and threats related to WMD and assess the scope of cooperation by addressing them, continuing and enhancing the thematic dialogue through regular consultations at the EU-Brazil political dialogue meetings on non-proliferation and disarmament;
• Co-operate in combating destabilizing accumulation and illicit trade of small arms and light weapons (SALW) and their ammunition;
• Cooperate in bringing the negotiations on an Arms Trade treaty (ATT) in the United Nations to a successful conclusion at the Diplomatic Conference in July 2012.
4. Conflict prevention, peacemaking and peacekeeping
The EU and Brazil will endeavour to contribute to strengthen the multilateral conflict prevention peacemaking and peacekeeping capacities at the UN, in regional organizations and at bilateral level, by means of:
• Integrating the different aspects of conflict prevention, peacemaking and peacekeeping;
• Sharing assessments of ongoing and emerging crises as a basis for building mutual understanding and strengthen collaboration within international institutions;
•Starting exploratory discussions on a possible Framework Agreement on Brazil’s participation in EU CSDP missions as a way of enhancing mutually beneficial cooperation;
• Exchanging views and experiences on United Nations peacekeeping operations with a view to increasing collaboration in this field;
• Examine possibilities for triangular cooperation in the area of peacekeeping.
5. Peacebuilding and post-conflict stabilisation
The EU and Brazil share the view that the international community should engage in a dialogue on peacebuilding activities in countries that are in a situation of conflict or post-conflict, or with a view to preventing conflict. Both parties agree that the participation of women in these activities should be improved.
Regarding peacebuilding in the future, the Parties resolve to:
• Join efforts for the establishment of the foundations for peace, by means of the strengthening of the political institutions and the promotion of socio-economic development of countries;
• Avail themselves of opportunities for cooperation in the context of the UN Peacebuilding Commission (PBC);
• Enhance coordination processes among donors and partners in the field to strengthen synergy and coherence of efforts in order to ensure effective support for nationally owned peacebuilding strategies;
• Strengthen cooperation on gender perspectives of peacebuilding and post-conflict reconstruction, and on children, through enhanced implementation of UNSC Resolution 1325 (2000) on women, peace and security, and UNSC Resolution 1612 (2006) on children in armed conflict;
• Examine possibilities for triangular cooperation in the area of post-conflict stabilisation;
• Coordinate to improve national and international capacities to tackle conflict and its multiple root causes, including through improving institutional coherence at the UN in
the field of peacebuilding;
• Join efforts in the area of post-conflict reconstruction, particularly regarding Haiti and Guinea Bissau, and explore the possibility of engaging in tripartite cooperation in this area.
6. Fight against terrorism
The EU and Brazil will cooperate in preventing and combating terrorism, in accordance with international human rights and humanitarian law, relevant international conventions and instruments, the relevant UN resolutions, including UN General Assembly Resolution 60/288 of 8 September 2006 – which contains the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy – and their respective legislation and regulations. They recognise the importance of assisting and supporting the victims of terrorism.
They shall in particular:
• Support international efforts to ensure full respect for international law, in particular human rights and humanitarian law, while fighting against terrorism;
• Implement the UN global counter-terrorism strategy adopted by the UNGA in September 2006 and updated biannually since 2008, and ensure full implementation of all relevant UN Security Council Resolutions, in particular 1267 (1999) and 1373 (2001), and all subsequent Resolutions modifying these, UN conventions on terrorism and related protocols;
• Pursue negotiations for a UN Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism;
• Work to fully implement the nine Financial Action Task Force recommendations on the prevention of and fight against terrorism financing;
• Cooperate on issues of terrorism prevention and the use of the Internet for terrorist purposes, in due consideration of the respective internal legislation;
• Explore ways to pursue a dialogue on this matter as appropriate.
7. Preventing and fighting organised crime and corruption
The EU and Brazil agree to cooperate, including in international fora, in fostering the implementation of international law on the efforts to counter transnational organized crime and corruption by promoting cooperation in criminal matters and in particular the full implementation of the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and supplementary Protocols on the fight against organized crime and the UN Convention against Corruption.
To that end, they agree to:
• Discuss in the framework of UN institutions and bodies (Commission for Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), UNGA to ensure that international policies are in line with the principles approved in that framework, including sharing views on draft resolutions for the annual Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (CCPCJ) session;
• Promote and support a strong UNCAC review mechanism as agreed at the Conference of the Parties in Doha and with the involvement of civil society, where applicable;
• Promote and support a strong UNTOC review mechanism, including by providing the necessary cooperation as required by Member States in their implementation of the Convention;
• Cooperate in preventing the use of their financial systems for laundering proceeds arising from criminal activities in general and implementing Financial Action Task
Force (FATF/GAFI) recommendations;
• Explore the possibilities of sharing experiences and best practices among Financial Intelligence Units (FIU) of Brazil and EU member countries;
• Express their willingness to exchange experiences, cooperation and good practices with interested countries in fighting against organised crime activities, including through Brazil and EU cooperation programmes;
• Consider involving, in their cooperation activities, inter-agency bilateral exchange of information and best practices on law enforcement;
• Express their interest in strengthening bilateral legal and police cooperation.
8. Prevention and control of the world drug problem and related crime
Based on the principle of shared responsibility and balanced approach between drug supply and demand reduction, and while taking into account the realities of both Parties, cooperation between the EU and Brazil in tackling the world drug problems should be centred on the exchange of experiences and good practices and the identification of areas in which capacity building and training activities could be mutually extended. The exchange of operational information to enable each Party to request and deliver juridical information, as well as other forms of collaboration, should be explored.
In this framework, they agree to:
• Co-operate in the framework of UN and intergovernmental bodies to ensure that initiatives suggested for adoption in those fora are in line with the principles enshrined in all the three international drug conventions. This cooperation may include sharing views on draft resolutions to be presented to the annual Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND) sessions.
• Exchange information, including with a view to exploring possibilities of triangular cooperation with interested third countries for capacity building, upon their request;
• Explore the possibilities for cooperation on exchanging information on the world drug problem, with a view to develop joint strategies to prevent and counter drugs and related crime;
• Promote joint efforts to develop cooperation at the bilateral level to counter the world drug problem and serious organised crime activities;
• Establish a bilateral Dialogue on Drug Matters, meeting on an annual basis;
• Support the Mechanism for Coordination and Cooperation on Drug Matters between the European Union and Latin America and the Caribbean as a key forum for dialogue between both regions in the area of drugs.
II. ENHANCING THE ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL PARTNERSHIP TO PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
1. Fostering the Economic Partnership
1.1 World Trade Organization/Doha Development Agenda
Brazil and the EU reaffirm their strong commitment to the successful outcome of the World Trade Organization’s Doha Development Round. They also confirm their willingness to keep working towards an ambitious, comprehensive and balanced conclusion of the Round that fulfills the development objectives of the mandate. The final agreement should significantly foster trade flows in agriculture and fisheries, industrial goods and services among and between developed and developing countries, as well as promote effective trade rules.
In the light of those objectives, Brazil and the EU will endeavour to:
• Keep up their contacts in the different domains of the WTO negotiation, so as to find solutions that promote the successful conclusion of the Round.
1.2 Development of trade, investment and business relations
Brazil and the EU concur that the promotion of trade liberalization and the facilitation of trade and of investment flows will foster the economic growth and prosperity of their societies.
To that end, Brazil and the EU agree to:
• Facilitate the exchange of information that allows both sides to take advantage of reciprocal opportunities for public and private investments and foster exchanges between business organizations;
• Reinforce the dialogue on investment and trade in the framework of the Joint Committee and increase the frequency of these meetings with, upon agreement between Brazil and the European Commission, intermediate follow-up meetings;
• Hold meetings of the consultation mechanism on Sanitary and Phytosanitary issues (SPS), with a view to continuing to deepen cooperation and technical contacts between both parties on SPS issues that may affect trade;
• Continue and further strengthen the pilot sectoral industrial and regulatory dialogues launched in September 2009 in the sectors: of textiles and clothing; forest-based products; steel; non-ferrous metals and minerals;
• Encourage the continued organization of regular Brazil-EU Business Summits involving also small and medium enterprises (SMEs) with a view to reinforcing business to government dialogue;
• Establish a dialogue on SMEs-related matters covering inter alia the exchange of best practices and the exchange of information on the EU and Brazil’s SME policy Framework;
• Continue their dialogue on Administrative Cooperation on Competition Policy, on the basis of the Memorandum of Understanding signed in October 2009 between the Directorate General for Competition of the European Commission and the Authorities of the Brazilian System for the Protection of Competition.
• Establish a dialogue on Tourism, focusing initially on the following issues:
- Explore the opportunities for sharing experience and best practice among tourism stakeholders, at public and private level, in Brazil and the EU with a specific emphasis on sustainable tourism destination management and in the field of statistics;
- Facilitate tourism flows between Brazil and the EU. In this context, a pilot project involving Brazil and EU countries will be implemented.
• Exchange information on their respective public procurement policies.
1.3 Intellectual Property Rights
Concerning intellectual property, both sides are committed to continue the dialogue on the protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights, in order to build a consensual view on the role of intellectual property for the promotion of innovation and to tackle the common challenge of fighting piracy and counterfeiting in their territories.
1.4 Economic and financial affairs
Brazil and the EU decide to:
• Coordinate efforts with a view to contributing to the reform of the world’s financial architecture so as to prevent financial crises in the future;
• Continue the regular holding of the high-level dialogue and enhanced co-ordination on macro-economic and financial issues launched in July 2009;
• Continue their dialogue on financial services launched in October 2009 and aimed at exchanging information and discussing the functioning and interaction of their respective regulatory systems, and better coordinating financial services policies with a view to implementing the G20 roadmap;
• Promote greater co-operation between the European Investment Bank (EIB) and counterparts in Brazil, notably Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES), in areas of mutual interest, including climate change, energy and infrastructure. In this respect, the renewed external mandate of the EIB offers increased opportunities;
• Exchange views in international tax matters and improve dialogue regarding the principles of transparency and exchange of information.
1.5 Air and Maritime Transport
In the air transport sector, both Parties underline the importance of further strengthening cooperation between Brazil and the EU in civil aviation matters.
To this end, Brazil and the EU intend to, inter alia:
• Stimulate the exchange of information regarding air transport policies;
• Explore the potential for cooperation in other areas of air transport policies, such as the SESAR project for the modernization of air traffic management.
In the maritime transport sector, Brazil and the EU intend to:
• Further develop all aspects of the Maritime Transport Policy Dialogue;
• Exchange views and information on a permanent basis with a view to improving the operations for Brazilian and EU shipping companies and facilitating maritime transport to and from Brazil and the EU;
• Examine and develop cooperation possibilities in important areas including ports, inland waterway transport, infrastructure, dredging, maritime safety, and security, particularly with a view to facilitate trade;
• Discuss approaches in relevant international organizations.
1.6 Information society
Brazil and the EU are committed to the building of the people-centred, non-discriminatory and development-oriented Information Society envisaged by the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) outcomes, as well as with the establishment of multilateral, transparent and democratic multi-stakeholder mechanisms for the governance of the global Internet. The EU and Brazil share the understanding that Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are essential to foster innovation, competitiveness and economic growth, to create jobs and to increase the efficiency of the public sector. Moreover, ICT have a fundamental role in promoting digital inclusion and improving social cohesion, increasing the quality of life and reducing poverty.
In this context, Brazil and the EU agree to:
• Work in close co-ordination in all relevant international fora in order to facilitate the full implementation of all WSIS outcomes;
• Expand the bilateral dialogue and cooperation on ICT matters, encompassing policy, regulatory and research issues. This collaboration will contribute to ensure a stable regulatory framework in this sector, which will set the conditions to take full advantage of ICT in support of public policies and social welfare;
• Develop cooperation in relevant scientific and technological ICT areas of common interest in the context of the implementation of the Brazil-EU Agreement for Scientific and Technological Cooperation, in particular by enhancing collaboration within the 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development, and by raising awareness through workshops, seminars and joint activities;
• Promote exchanges on e-infrastructures for networking and access to the electronic services between research libraries and data archives.
2. Achieving Millennium Development Goals and promoting social cohesion and inclusion
2.1 Bilateral dialogue on global development and cooperation with third countries
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a shared priority in order to reduce economic and social disparities as well as to ensure international peace, economic well-being of all citizens and comprehensive human development. Both Brazil and the EU play an active role in multilateral fora and should continue to cooperate to effectively contribute to the achievement of all Millennium Development Goals by 2015.
The EU and Brazil are convinced that by joining their forces, they can improve progress towards these shared priorities. Therefore, the EU and Brazil attach high importance to the role of triangular cooperation that should be one of the major areas for the Strategic Partnership. It should respect principles such as partner country ownership and alignment with their development strategies and take into account the cultural dimension of the development process. Triangular cooperation between the EU and Brazil in partnership with developing countries should be promoted as a modality to complement the existing bilateral cooperation initiatives, as well as leverage knowledge, coherence and additional financial resources for the benefit of developing countries.
In the context of the Global Action Against Hunger and Poverty, continued discussion on the voluntary establishment of innovative financing mechanisms for development is needed. Optimizing available resources is necessary, as well as mobilizing new and additional, adequate and predictable resources, especially for the poorest countries. The EU as the world’s largest grant donor and Brazil as an increasingly engaged actor in the developing world will join efforts in bringing development skills and prosperity to developing countries.
To that end, Brazil and the EU will:
• Strengthen their coordination/cooperation on global partnership for development aid effectiveness to support the achievement of the MDGs, stressing the importance of the Busan High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness and the Development Cooperation Forum of ECOSOC;
• Intensify efforts towards development and cooperation in innovative financing mechanisms, as exemplified by the successful cases of UNITAID and International Finance Facility for Immunisation (IFFIM);
• Exchange views and positions aiming to increase the effectiveness and volume of resources provided by international financial institutions to developing countries;
• Strengthen the dialogue and cooperation on humanitarian affairs, including the exchange of information on humanitarian action and best practices in a wide range of areas in an effort to assure effective humanitarian assistance with the overall objective of responding to needs and reducing human suffering in humanitarian situations;
• Actively promote better coordination amongst donors and other development partners and seek increased coherence between international development fora. Joint activities will be based on the existing Joint Work Programme which may be adapted in the light of mutually agreed principles on development cooperation;
• Develop triangular cooperation to support the achievement of MDGs, including the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, notably through the promotion of full and productive employment and decent work for all, the promotion of gender equality and empowerment of women, the achievement of universal primary education, social inclusion and social cohesion to the benefit of developing countries which express interest in this type of cooperation;
• Advance cooperation under the letter of intent on triangular cooperation on electoral processes signed in Brussels in July 2010;
• Intensify exchanges on development cooperation based on their respective experiences and policies;
• Explore opportunities for triangular cooperation with developing countries in sectors such as the health sector, in particular by cooperating in sharing relevant best practices with other countries for fighting diseases, notably HIV/AIDS, including with a view to the local generic production of essential medicines;
• Explore opportunities for triangular cooperation with developing countries in the field of agriculture, food and nutrition security, including small-scale and family agriculture, notably by promoting innovation;
•Explore opportunities for triangular cooperation with Member States of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty (TCA) on issues of interest for the sustainable development of the Amazon Region;
• Intensify exchanges on development cooperation in education and lifelong learning, particularly on successful models in use in Brazil for expanding access to education for the most excluded groups of children, youth and adults as well as on holistic approaches to education sector development and capacity building;
• In cases of humanitarian crises or natural catastrophes or disasters, coordinate positions and actions on a case-by-case basis with a view to allowing for quick responses.
2.2 Social and employment issues
The EU and Brazil are committed to promoting decent work with effective respect for fundamental principles, rights at work, social development, full, freely chosen and productive employment for both women and men, and combat child and forced labour.
The EU and Brazil share a common interest in reinforcing their dialogue on labour and social policies to define effective solutions appropriate for each region, in accordance with the Memorandum of Understanding signed in April 2008.
Brazil and the EU are committed to:
• Support the decent work agenda, in particular with regards to fundamental principles, rights at work, social protection and social dialogue, with gender equality as a crosscutting objective;
• Promote full, freely chosen and productive employment for both women and men;
• Combat child and forced labour;
• Develop cooperation and exchanges in the field of active labour market policies and instruments, including career guidance and lifelong learning opportunities;
• Cooperate in the field of health and safety in the workplace;
• Strengthen cooperation and dialogue in the field of social security systems, especially by extending them to atypical and precarious workers;
• Support dialogue and exchange of best practices in the field of corporate social responsibility and codes of fair conduct in corporations with a special view to ISO 26000 developments;
• Exchange best practices in the field of the ageing societies and demographic change;
• Exchange best practices in social inclusion, in particular with regards to minorities;
• Exchange best practices in the field of poverty reduction;
• Define and implement a rolling calendar for the current EU-Brazil dialogue on social policies.
2.3 Reduce regional disparities
The reduction of regional disparities is at the heart of the EU’s and Brazil’s internal policies. The EU and Brazil propose to intensify the Dialogue on Regional Policy, selecting as priorities:
• Exchange experience on territorial cohesion and multi-level governance and partnership involving regional and local actors, private sector and civil society;
• Exchange experience on strategic planning and organizing territorial development strategies to reduce social and regional disparities;
• Exchange experience on development of administrative capacity, inter-institutional coordination and communication, monitoring and evaluation capacity, regional innovation systems;
• Develop co-operation schemes between regions, including cross-border cooperation;
• Stimulate technical support for the development and consolidation of regional policies including possible implementation of pilot projects involving key areas of the Brazilian National Regional Development Policy (Política Nacional de Desenvolvimento Regional – PNDR) and the European Commission regional policy.
2.4 Institutional strengthening and state modernization
Brazil and the EU agree to:
• Continue the exchange of experience and cooperation in the area of modernization of public administration, through the development of capacity building activities in the Executive, Legislative and Judicial branches;
• Foster the exchange of information and experts as well as the preparation of comparative studies;
• Continue the bilateral dialogue on Public Sector Governance;
• Develop activities under a technical cooperation project to support the current and future dialogues.
2.5 Statistics-related cooperation
The EU and Brazil recognize that timely, reliable and accurate statistics are essential for effective decision-making, in particular to guide national policies for poverty reduction, human and economic development, and for public information.
A dialogue between EUROSTAT and IBGE was established through the signature of a Memorandum of Understanding on Statistics related Cooperation in June 2010. The EU and Brazil reiterate their commitment to maintaining their regular dialogue aimed inter alia at:
• Facilitating the sharing of methodological references;
• Sharing new developments and practices in statistical fields of mutual interest;
• Engaging in international cooperation in particular with MERCOSUR and PALOP countries.
3. Promoting an environmental partnership for sustainable development
3.1 The environmental dimension of sustainable development
Both Brazil and the EU are key partners for pressing for greater international action to respond to global environmental issues, in particular biodiversity and forests, including their sustainable use, and to avoid land degradation. Both the EU and Brazil are committed to promoting the green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication, in particular at the UN Conference on Sustainable development in Rio in 2012.
In relation to forest issues, Brazil and the EU agree to promote sustainable forest management at all levels and exchange experience on best practices and measures to prevent and combat illicit trafficking in forest products, including timber, wildlife and other forest biological and genetic resources. They reaffirm their support to the work of the UN Forum on Forests (UNFF) and of the FAO and the full implementation of its decisions as well as other relevant international instruments to which they are parties. In relation to biodiversity, Brazil and the EU reaffirm the need to enhance their mutual efforts in implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in order to achieve its three objectives and the new global targets to significantly reduce the current rate of biodiversity loss by 2020, including in regards to financial targets and to the mobilization of new and additional resources.
Both parties will take into account the principles set out in the Rio Declaration and other internationally agreed instruments, especially the Nagoya Protocol to the CBD, on access to genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilization, adopted in the COP 10 in October 2010. They support the protection and use of this traditional knowledge and practices in the sustainable management of ecosystems, under mutually agreed terms and with the prior informed consent of the holders of such knowledge, in accordance with national legislation and relevant international agreements.
Brazil and the EU agree that the meetings of the Dialogue on the Environment Dimension of Sustainable Development take place at the level of senior officials, whenever possible at ministerial level. Simultaneously, discussions on technical level will take place.
In addition, Brazil and the EU decide to:
• Deepen, as appropriate, political dialogue on the strengthening of international environmental and sustainable development governance;
• Deepen cooperation and exchange of experience in the preparation for the Rio+20 Conference, and follow up on the commitments that both parties will make, in particular on the promotion of the green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication;
• Strengthen cooperation in the field of water resources through training, promotion of best practices in the areas of supply and basic sanitation, reinforcement of institutions from local, regional and national authorities with a view to better planning;
• Advance the implementation of the CBD, in particular by cooperating to implement National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans and to revise and/or update them, as appropriate, in line with the Aichi targets of the CBD Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020;
• Strengthen cooperation to enhance the implementation of the CBD programmes of work on sustainable use, protected areas, forest, and marine biodiversity and strengthen the operations of the Convention including its Subsidiary Body;
• Exchange experiences on the mobilisation of resources for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, including the mobilisation of funding from innovative sources and the private sector;
• Strengthen cooperation on the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and the Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol on Liability and redress to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety with a view to advancing its implementation;
• Strengthen international cooperation on the conservation and sustainable management of all types of forests and enhance the action under the UNFF, as well as the other relevant international instruments to which they are parties;
• Exchange experiences on the sustainable management of forests and forest law enforcement;
• Further explore the potential of research and technology co-operation and options for technology transfer as an incentive to further action;
• Strengthen the implementation of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, the Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent, and the Basle Convention on Hazardous Wastes and promote synergies between them, strengthen the implementation of the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM);
• Exchange points of view on the intergovernmental negotiations on the elaboration of a legally-binding instrument on mercury and support international efforts aimed at addressing mercury pollution in water, soil and air;
• Carry out training and capacity building activities with a view to the conservation and sustainable management of natural ecosystems;
• Work together at the UN for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity beyond areas of national jurisdiction in order to identify gaps and the way forward including the development of a multilateral agreement under UNCLOS which would address all issues pertaining to conservation and sustainable use as one single package.
3.2 Strengthening the climate change partnership
Brazil and the EU are key partners in promoting greater international action in response to climate change. This Action Plan will endeavour to strengthen cooperation in the international negotiations and to share experience on domestic climate policies. They highlight the urgent need for all developed countries to commit to more ambitious and comparable legally-binding emission reduction targets and for developing countries to take nationally appropriate mitigation actions in the context of sustainable development and in accordance with common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities.
Brazil and the EU agree that the meetings of the Climate Change Dialogue take place at the level of senior officials and whenever possible at ministerial level. Simultaneously, discussions at technical level will take place.
In addition, Brazil and the EU decide to:
• Work towards an ambitious and comprehensive outcome to combat climate change engaging all countries through a balanced effort that respects common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities within the framework of the UNFCCC with a view to holding the increase in global average temperature below 2 °C above preindustrial levels.
• Strengthen their cooperation and support ongoing efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and forests degradation, in accordance with relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC;
• Explore possible cooperation on market mechanisms;
• Explore exchange of experience on low emission development strategies;
• Foster joint research in the area of climate science, with emphasis on the identification of vulnerabilities and adaptation and on climate change mitigation;
• Further explore the potential of research and technology co-operation and options for technology transfer as an incentive to further action;
• Explore options for cooperation with third countries in carrying out training and capacity building activities with a view to making use of opportunities offered by the Cancun Agreements.
3.3 Strengthening Disaster Risk Capacities
Appropriate preparedness, prevention and mitigation actions against the risks generated by natural, man-made and social-environmental hazards are key elements for safe and sustainable societies and involvement in disaster prevention, preparedness and management is crucial to address the impacts of climate change.
To this end, Brazil and the EU agree to:
• Contribute to the International Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) in the accomplishment of the Hyogo Framework of Action (HFA);
• Explore ways to promote an effective regionalisation of best practices on Disaster Risk Reduction, optimizing the added value to be contributed by Brazil and the EU and including Brazil in the DRR regional initiatives supported by the EU in South America;
• Establish a dialogue and cooperation which will address, inter alia, exchanges of information and practices on local disaster management; institutional linkages and advocacy; information, education and communication; demonstrative small scale infrastructure and services aiming at preventing or mitigating the impact of natural hazards; constitution of emergency stocks of emergency and relief items; and protection of livelihoods against disasters;
• Collaborate in the setting up of a Brazilian National Centre for Monitoring and Early Warning of Natural Disaster through technical assistance provided by the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC), notably in the area of floods, droughts and landslides.
4. Strengthening cooperation on energy issues
Both Brazil and the EU recognize the need to work towards achieving sustainable and reliable energy supplies.
They view the promotion of renewable energy and the efforts aimed at improving both energy efficiency and access to energy as an important contribution to fulfilling sustainable development needs as well as achieving greater energy security.
Such policies should also facilitate the development of more efficient far-reaching, socially inclusive and lower carbon energy technologies alternative to fossil fuels with a positive impact in terms of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, with a particular emphasis on safety and sustainability.
The political commitment by the EU and Brazil leaders to increase the production and use of renewable energies in a sustainable manner, including biofuels, offers economic opportunities to both sides.
Within the framework of the Brazil-EC regular Energy Policy Dialogue, the two sides intend to strengthen cooperation on issues such as:
• Major international energy developments;
• Policies to promote energy security, including diversification of supply and of supply routes;
• Regulatory issues for energy markets, including the promotion of investments and free trade;
• Energy efficiency and demand management, including joint initiatives and joint work to promote access to energy and energy efficiency at the international level;
• Low carbon technologies including inter alia gas and clean coal, as well as research on nuclear energy and cooperation on nuclear safety, paying particular attention to safe and sustainable technologies;
• Development and deployment of renewable energy technologies;
• Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies;
• Promotion of the consolidation of national, regional and international markets for sustainable biofuels, with a view to facilitating international trade and guarantee quality;
• Joint initiatives for trilateral cooperation with developing countries on the sustainable development of bio-energy;
• The promotion of access to energy services in remote and less developed areas;
• International technical standards for biofuels;
• Safety and security of vulnerable energy infrastructures;
• Market organisation for gas and electricity;
• Coordination in multilateral fora for the discussion of voluntary, science based, practical and relevant sustainability criteria for the elaboration of policies to promote bioenergy production and use;
• Other cooperation fields as mutually agreed upon.
III. PROMOTING REGIONAL COOPERATION
1. Advancing EU-LAC cooperation
The stability and prosperity of Latin America and the Caribbean and Europe are paramount to Brazil and the EU. Brazil and the EU agree to work together in the context of their Strategic Partnership to the strengthening of political, economic and cultural biregional relations. Brazil and the EU will combine their efforts to:
• Support inter-regional initiatives that enhance the regional integration, notably the EU-LAC process;
• Uphold a regular exchange of views on the situation in both regions;
• Promote the implementation of commitments generated by the EU-LAC Summits and in particular of the Madrid Action Plan. In this context, the EU and Brazil attach particular importance to the establishment and the development of the functions of the EU-LAC Foundation;
• Reinforce exchanges about key policies to promote social inclusion, and reduce poverty and inequality;
• Continue to consult and coordinate in matters of mutual interest in the context of the dialogue between the relevant regional groupings and the EU.
2. Advancing the Mercosur-European Union agenda
The EU-Brazil Strategic Partnership has a strong potential to impact positively on the EU and on Brazil, and on relations between the EU and Mercosur as a whole. Brazil and the EU attribute great importance to strengthening the relations between both regions and are engaged in concluding the negotiating process of an ambitious, balanced and comprehensive bi-regional Association Agreement. This Agreement will allow further deepening of the economic relations as well as the trade and investment flows between both regions – an issue of major importance for both sides and of relevance to the strengthening of the regional integration processes.
To this intent, Brazil and the EU agree to:
• Continue to work towards the conclusion of a balanced and comprehensive EU-Mercosur agreement;
• Support the political dialogue as well as other initiatives to strengthen development and economic cooperation between the two regions. Brazil and the EU agree that it is important to strengthen and improve the business environment and help overcome unnecessary obstacles to trade;
• Exchange views and explore ways of cooperation in customs matters;
• Explore together how to maximise co-operation and exchange of experiences in regional integration questions;
• Foster collaboration between the Parliament of Mercosur and the European Parliament.
IV. PROMOTING SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION
The EU and Brazil share the conviction that a strong science and knowledge-based society is a major prerequisite for sustainable and equitable socio-economic development. The Agreement for Scientific and Technological Cooperation, in force since 2006 between the EU and the Federative Republic of Brazil, provides the main framework for action. In the context of the Agreement, the Parties reaffirm the value they attach to the work of the Joint Science and Technology Steering Committee (JSTSC) and agree to enhance the cooperation and develop a more strategic partnership by increasing the scale and the scope of existing cooperation addressing key societal challenges, promoting reciprocal access to programmes and funding increasing regional cooperation where appropriate.
Joint work between Brazilian and European institutions and companies should be promoted and supported with the aim of reaching progress in research and technological development, especially to foster innovative technologies oriented to the production of goods and services.
In that context, Brazil and the EU agree to foster cooperation on science, technology and innovation under the guidelines of the Agreement, by:
• Making optimal use of various mechanisms of networking and cooperation, including, inter alia, facilitating access to scientific and technological knowledge, joint calls, twinning of projects, programme level cooperation for the selection and funding of research and development projects in areas of common interest;
• Encouraging partnerships, joint activities, the creation of networks, exchange and mobility of researchers between Brazilian and European institutions and teams;
• Exchanging experience and relevant information that support and strengthen the priority sectors in both Parties and that contribute to sustainable development, economic growth and social inclusion;
• Promoting increased participation by Brazilian researchers, universities, institutions and industries in the 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (RTD) as well as in its follow-up and in other relevant EU programmes;
• Developing and promoting modalities for participation of European researchers, universities, institutions and industries in relevant Brazilian research programmes;
• Enhancing the effectiveness of the dialogue in science and technology by improving mechanisms of co-ordination and diffusion of information;
• Fostering cooperation to provide long term stability and sustainability for Latin American regional research networking and cooperation;
• Establishing a structured dialogue on civil space cooperation. The Space Dialogue will enable discussions and cooperation across a broad range of space activities, including Earth Observation and Earth Science, the work of GEO and CEOS, GNSS, satellite communications, space science and space exploration. The dialogue will intensify the discussions and the exchange of information regarding the European Satellite Navigation Programmes (Galileo and EGNOS) and comparable initiatives in Brazil, and aiming to conclude an international agreement on the issue;
• Exploring opportunities for cooperation on research for peaceful use of nuclear energy and strengthening cooperation and dialogue (in particular the development of the bilateral research programme as well as training and development of human resources) within the framework of the Agreement for Cooperation between the European Atomic Energy Community and the Government of the Federative Republic of Brazil in the field of fusion energy research, signed in 2009, upon its entry into force;
• Strengthening the collaboration between the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) and Brazilian research institutions and public authorities in strategic areas of common interest to be jointly agreed. Staff exchanges between the JRC and Brazil, the mutual opening of research facilities, and technology transfer should be fostered, inter alia, with the aim of enhancing science-based support to policy-making and boosting innovation.
V. PROMOTING PEOPLE-TO-PEOPLE CONTACTS AND CULTURAL EXCHANGES
1. Migration, Visa and Consular issues
Migration, people-to-people contacts and consular issues are increasingly important in the context of globalization, given the large-scale movement of people from region to region. It is therefore important to continue to address the whole range of migration issues such as regular migration, irregular migration and links between migration and development, within the framework of their bilateral relations and the international fora where both the EU and Brazil participate, taking into account the human rights and dignity of all migrants. Brazil and Europe recognize the positive role of migration as a factor of human and economic exchange in countries of both origin and destination.
In this context, given the existence of large migrant communities both in Brazil and in the EU, the Parties agree to strengthen the dialogue on migration issues within the existing EU-Brazil fora and propose to work more specifically on:
• Fostering links between migration and development and promoting the contribution of diasporas to the growth and development of both countries of origin and destination;
• Working in the field of remittances in order to facilitate their transfer and find suitable mechanisms for the reduction of their transfer costs;
• Promoting policies for a better organization of regular migration flows and effectively addressing all the dimensions of the issue of irregular migration and all aspects of return in full respect of human rights;
• Increasing the operational cooperation in order to combat the smuggling of persons, the trafficking in human beings and the exploitation of migrants;
• Ensuring the smooth implementation of mutual visa free travel, on the basis of the short stay visa waiver agreements concluded between Brazil and the EU;
• Continuing to cooperate on consular issues, especially those related to consular access, assistance and protection. In particular, special attention will be given to ensuring that consulates are informed in case of arrest, detention or transfer of their nationals. Detainees in police stations, airports and border crossings should also be given access to consular assistance.
Brazil and the EU intend to strengthen exchanges and cooperation on education in areas deemed of common interest. Both parties agree to build on existing programmes and instruments, notably to:
• Develop their sectoral policy dialogue on education and training launched by the Joint Declaration signed in 2009. Impetus was given to the implementation of the Joint Declaration by the official meeting held on 5 April 2011 between the European Commissioner in charge of education and the Brazilian Minister for Education. They agreed to implement the Declaration through the organization of a first joint expert meeting on higher education in 2012 which will focus on mobility and academic cooperation;
•Convene a Senior Officials' meeting to explore the establishment of a Joint Work Programme for future cooperation;
• Promote mutual cooperation and exchanges in higher education and research and the mobility of students, teachers and researchers through the implementation of higher education and research programmes;
• Promote collaboration between high level institutions (universities, research institutes, private sector, diplomatic academies, think tanks, etc) in areas of common interest such as specialised European and Brazilian studies and International Relations;
• Encourage the organisation of higher education fairs, seminars and conferences in Brazil and in the EU to contribute to improving recognition, transparency and mutual awareness of the respective education and research systems;
• Raise awareness and exchange best practices on multilingualism.
Both Brazil and the EU are committed to the preservation and promotion of cultural diversity, to the enhancement of intercultural dialogue and to the fostering of cultural and creative industries. The Parties will endeavour to jointly address these questions at the institutional level, at the level of public and private sectors, as well as at the level of civil society organizations.
The Parties will develop the policy dialogue on culture, including creative and cultural economy and its industries, in particular through the adoption and implementation of the Joint Programme on Culture 2011-2014.
Cultural cooperation may include, inter alia:
• Joint work to promote cooperation in international instances, to facilitate the effective implementation of the 2005 UNESCO Convention;
• The promotion of social inclusion and sustainable development by improving access to culture, including through the use of information, communication and new digital technologies;
• Appropriate measures to promote cultural exchanges and possible joint initiatives so as to increase awareness of Brazilian culture in Europe and European culture in Brazil;
• Promote cooperation in the field of culture, including actions in favour of policy development and cultural activities at local level;
• Cooperation and exchange in the field of cultural heritage, envisaging the preservation of cultural goods and expressions, including cooperation within the museum sector;
• Facilitation of mobility of art and artists from the EU and Brazil;
• Exploration of forms of cooperation in developing public policies in the audiovisual field.
4. Civil society
The EU and Brazil are aware of the importance of consolidating the democratic instruments for consulting civil society, in particular the institutions representing civil society organizations in the economic and social sphere, while making optimum use of existing organizations. Cooperation should be encouraged between the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC) and the Brazilian Council for Economic and Social Development (CDES).
On that basis, Brazil and the EU will seek to:
• Deepen cooperation between the EESC and the CDES on the basis of the existing Memorandum of Understanding between them;
• Continue to promote and support the regular holding of meetings of the EU-Brazil civil society Round Table launched by the EESC and the CDES in 2009, and that is part of the institutional architecture of the EU-Brazil relationship. This joint body is conceived as a permanent forum of dialogue at civil society level on all the issues that are discussed within the EU-Brazil Partnership. Its recommendations are addressed to the EU-Brazil Summits;
• Promote cooperation, exchanges of experience and good practices between business associations, trade unions, farmers, and other civil society organizations from both parties.
5. Promotion of inter-parliamentary exchange and interaction
Parliaments are a fundamental expression of democratic values and of people’s representation in the democratic processes. Contacts, visits, and exchanges between the European Parliament and the Brazilian Congress have been increasing and solidifying since the establishment of the EU-Brazil Strategic Partnership. The EU and Brazil are committed to promoting the further strengthening of the dialogue between the European Parliament and the Brazilian Congress.
Brazil and the EU therefore will:
• Support the continuation of regular contacts between the Members of the Brazilian National Congress and of the European Parliament on all subjects of common interest;
• Support efforts aiming at the establishment of a regular structured dialogue between the Brazilian National Congress and the European Parliament.
6. Mutual visibility
Brazil and the EU decide to:
• Encourage reciprocal press coverage and journalistic exchange;
• Organize conferences and short courses for journalists on a reciprocal basis;
• Ensure proper visibility and communication, notably through the Internet or any other adequate means, as agreed by both parties, to the objectives and actions developed under the Strategic Partnership, as well as to other areas of the cooperation between Brazil and the EU.