The Charter of the United Nations was the result of negotiations concluded at the end of World War II and has been in force since 1945. Within the UN institutional architecture, the primary responsibility on matters related to international peace and security was entrusted to an organ of limited composition, the United Nations Security Council (UNSC). War became a violation of international law and Member-States committed to settling their disputes by peaceful means and to refrain from the use of force in international relations.
Based on Chapters VI or VII of the UN Charter, the Security Council may decide which measures to adopt regarding States whose actions are not consistent with norms relating to international peace and security. Among the decisions that may be taken under Chapter VII are the imposition of arms embargoes, comprehensive sanctions and even the authorization for military intervention. Such measures are expressions of the UNSC's coercive authority since they don't require the consent of the conflicting parties.
The Security Council consists of five permanent members (the United States, the Russian Federation, The People's Republic of China, France and the United Kingdom) and ten non-permanent members, elected for two-year terms. Along with Japan, Brazil is the country that has most often held a seat as a non-permanent member on the UNSC, in the terms 1946-47, 1951-52, 1954-55, 1963-64, 1967-68, 1988-89, 1993-94, 1998-99, 2004-05, and 2010-11, ten times in all. In the most recent, Brazil was elected with 182 votes among 183 voting countries, which demonstrates broad recognition of Brazil's contribution to the organ.
Deeply aware of the Security Council's mandate and prerogatives, Brazil believes the organ must act with transparency and responsibility, guided always by the principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations. It advocates diplomatic and political channels for the settlement of disputes and considers coercive actions as measures of last resort.
Brazil seeks to contribute to improving the conceptual development of matters related to peace and security – as in the case of preventive diplomacy, the most effective way to protect civilian populations under the threat of violence. It stresses the interdependence between security and development, which was endorsed by the Security Council in the declaration adopted under the Brazilian presidency of the organ in February 2011.
With independence and always seeking to promote balanced views based on dialogue, Brazil – in the exercise of mandates in the UNSC and elsewhere – acts with a view to building consensus, particularly in situations of major polarization and divergence among UNSC members.
Brazil believes the UNSC needs to be reformed in order to become more legitimate and representative of all 193 UN member-States. The reform is a necessity in order to reflect contemporary reality. It is a matter of preserving the United Nations framework, by adapting its structure to the requirements of the 21st. century.
In order to know more, please access the hotsite http://csnu.itamaraty.gov.br