United States of America
Brazil and the United States are the largest countries on the American continent. Both nations have dynamic and diversified economies and share common values and interests. The United States is the main destination for Brazilian exports of manufactured goods and a traditional source of foreign direct investment to Brazil. A number of US companies have been present in the Brazilian market for more than a hundred years. At the same time, Brazilian corporations are also expanding their investments in the United States, in an effort to augment their scale of production, to acquire new technologies and to expand their activities worldwide. People-to-people ties have also gained importance through the increase in the number of business trips, student exchanges and cultural activities.
Both sides share the interest to raise the bilateral relations to a new level. Although cooperation between Brazil and the United States is well developed, there are still a number of opportunities available, in areas such as the participation in global value chains, the improvement of corporate governance, the expansion of investments, measures for trade facilitation, as well as joint initiatives in science, technology, and innovation and the strengthening of cooperation in defense, security, energy, outer space, education and culture.
On March 18 and 19, 2019, President Jair Bolsonaro made an official visit to the United States. It was his first official trip abroad and represented a new milestone in the bilateral relationship, ensuring a leap in quality in the relations between the two countries. The visit brought concrete results, among them: visa waiver for U.S. tourists; the signing of the US-Brazil Technology Safeguards Agreement, which will allow for the commercial launching of satellites from the Alcantara Space Center; the signing of an agreement between the Brazilian Space Agency and NASA, aimed at the development of a small satellite for monitoring space climate; the statement of support from the US government for Brazil´s accession to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OCDE) as a full member; the designation of Brazil as a “Major non-NATO Ally”, which opens new possibilities of cooperation in the defense area; the revitalization, on a new basis, of several bilateral mechanisms with a view to removing trade barriers and fostering investments (the CEO Forum; the US-Brazil Commission on Economic and Trade Relations; the Energy Forum). In a Joint Statement, the two presidents announced the decision to build a “Partnership for Prosperity” and strengthen the bonds of friendship that unite the two countries.
In March 2020 President Jair Bolsonaro made an important visit to the USA, this time to the State of Florida. President Donald Trump traveled especially from Washington and hosted a dinner to honor his Brazilian colleague. The presidents discussed promoting democracy, prosperity and security. Among other decisions, they instructed their negotiators to finalize a bilateral trade package. In addition, President Trump reiterated his support for Brazil's accession to the OECD. In the context of the visit, a Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Agreement was signed, which will allow for joint projects in the defense area. President Jair Bolsonaro also participated in two business events to foster trade and investments, recognizing the importance of Florida, a state with which Brazil maintained a $20.9 billion trade flow in 2019. The President's visit program also included meetings with the Brazilian community, with politicians from Florida, and a visit to the EMBRAER plant in Jacksonville.
The constructive dialogue between Brazil and the United States benefits from the existence of various cooperation mechanisms. Among the main bilateral coordination forums, the following can be highlighted:
• Global Partnership Dialogue (co-chaired by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Brazil and the Secretary of State of the United States);
• Defense Cooperation Dialogue (co-chaired by the Minister of Defense of Brazil and the Secretary of Defense of the United States);
• U.S.-Brazil Permanent Forum on Security;
• U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum;
• U.S.-Brazil Energy Forum (USBEF);
• Economic and Financial Dialogue;
• Commercial Dialogue; and
• U.S.-Brazil Commission on Economic and Trade Relations.
In terms of trade, the United States is the second-largest trading partner of Brazil, and the main destination for Brazilian manufactured and semi-manufactured products, which compose about 75% of Brazilian exports to the US. In 2019, the flow of trade in goods showed exchanges in an amount exceeding $ 59 billion.
According to a report prepared by the Brazilian Trade and Investment Promotion Agency (Apex-Brasil) (2019), in partnership with the American Chamber of Commerce in Brazil, the stock of U.S. direct investment in Brazil, between 2008 and 2017, expanded by 55.3%, to $68.2 billion. It also informs that Brazil's stock of investment in the U.S. grew from $1.6 billion in 2000 to $42.8 billion in 2017. These estimates also indicate that Brazilian investment supports more than 100,000 direct jobs in the USA.
The frequent and intense exchange of high-level visits between Brazilian and American leaders, as well as the wide-ranging formal mechanisms for dialogue established between representatives of the public and private sectors of the two countries, highlight the broad, dynamic and productive nature of the Brazil-US partnership.
Chronology of bilateral relations
2020 – Secretary of State Mike Pompeo visits the city of Boa Vista (Roraima State). Bilateral working meeting between Minister Ernesto Araújo and the Secretary of State (September 18)
2020 – President Jair Bolsonaro visits Florida. [Joint Statement]. Dinner with President Donald Trump. Signing of the Defense Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Agreement (March 7-10)
2020 – Foreign Affairs Minister Ernesto Araújo travels to Washington to attend a launch dinner for the " International Religious Freedom Alliance"; the National Prayer Breakfast and a special session of the OAS Permanent Council (February 5-6)
2020 – Minister Ernesto Araújo meets with Secretary of State Mike Pompeo in Bogota, on the sidelines of the III Hemispheric Conference on the Fight against Terrorism (January 21)
2019 – Minister Ernesto Araújo visits the US for the inaugural meeting of the Strategic Policy Dialogue (September 13)
2019 – The US Secretary of Commerce, Wilbur Ross visits Brazil (São Paulo and Brasília - July 30 to August 1)
2019 – Presidents Bolsonaro and Trump meet on the margins of the G-20 Summit, in the city of Osaka (June 28)
2019 – The President of the Republic visits Dallas, to receive the “Personality of the Year” award from the Brazil-United States Chamber of Commerce ”, accompanied by the Ministers of Economy; Foreign Relations
2019 – Minister Ernesto Araújo makes a working visit to Washington, to follow up on the topics covered in the presidential visit (April 29)
2019 – The Minister of Defense visits the US (April 25-29)
2019 – Official visit of the Vice President of the Republic, Hamilton Mourão to the US (Washington, April 8 and 9)
2019 – Minister Ernesto Araújo visits the United States (Washington, February 5-7) to hold meetings with U.S. government officials, opinion leaders, entrepreneurs and congressmen [Press conference]
2019 – Minister Ernesto Araújo receives U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo (Brasília, January 2), who represented President Donald Trump in the inauguration of President Jair Bolsonaro [Press conference]
2018 – Courtesy visit of U.S. Secretary of Defense James Mattis (Brasília, August 13)
2018 – U.S. Vice President Mike Pence visits Brasília (June 26-27)
2017 – U.S. Under Secretary for Political Affairs, Ambassador Thomas Shannon, visits Brazil when he is hosted by Foreign Minister José Serra (December 17)
2016 – Foreign Minister José Serra holds a working meeting with Secretary of State John Kerry at the Itamaraty Palace in Rio de Janeiro on the occasion of the opening of the Rio 2016 Olympics (August 5)
2016 – Minister Mauro Vieira travels to the United States on the occasion of the Third Meeting of the Brazil-U.S. Commission on Economic and Trade Relations under the Brazil-United States Agreement on Trade and Economic Cooperation (ATEC), and of the 4th Nuclear Security Summit, in Washington, D.C. (March 31 to April 1)
2015 – Minister Mauro Vieira visits Washington (January 13-16)
2015 – Vice President Joe Biden visits Brazil on the occasion of the inauguration of President Dilma Rousseff (January 1st)
2013 – Vice President Joe Biden visits Brazil (May 31)
2013 – U.S. Vice President Joe Biden visits Brazil (May 31). The agenda focus on economy and energy issues
2013 – Minister Antonio Patriota visits Washington (May 20)
2012 – The fourth meeting of the Global Partnership Dialogue, the last under the coordination of U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, is held (October). The conclusion of the Action Plan on Aviation Partnership is announced
2012 – U.S. Secretary of Homeland Security Janet Napolitano visits Brazil (July). Deepening of the bilateral dialogue on visa and migration
2012 – U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visits Brazil (April 16 and 17). The third meeting of the Global Partnership Dialogue is held in Brasília with the aim of establishing the “next steps” in the bilateral relations
2011 – The second meeting of the Global Partnership Dialogue is held in Washington
2011 – President Barack Obama visits Brazil (March). Signing of ten bilateral agreements
2011 – Minister Antonio de Aguiar Patriota visits the United States (February 23 and 24). Dialogue on themes of the bilateral and global agenda
2011 – U.S. Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner visits Brazil (February). Dialogue on the world economic situation
2010 – Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visits Brazil (March). The Global Partnership Dialogue is launched
2009 – Secretary-General of Foreign Affairs Samuel Pinheiro Guimarães visits Washington (June)
2008 – First meeting of the ‘Brazil Caucus’, a new informal group of congress members with an interest in Brazil and the Brazil-U.S. relations (September)
2008 – The Chief of Staff of the Presidency, Dilma Rousseff, visits Washington (April)
2008 – Minister of Defense Nelson Jobim visits Washington (March). Promotion of military rapprochement between the two countries
2008 – U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice visits Brasília and Salvador. Signing of the Action Plan to Promote Racial and Ethnic Equality (March)
2007 – Resolution of the U.S. House of Representatives recognizes the “warm friendship” and the growing “strategic relations” between Brazil and the United States (September)
2007 – President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva visits Camp David
2007 – President George W. Bush visits São Paulo (March). Signing of Memorandum of Understanding on Biofuels
2006 – President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva visits the United States
2005 – President George W. Bush visits Brazil
1997 – President William J. Clinton visits Brazil
1995 – President Fernando Henrique Cardoso visits the United States
1990 – President George H. W. Bush visits Brazil
1986 – President José Sarney visits the United States
1982 – President Ronald Reagan visits Brazil
1978 – President Jimmy Carter visits Brazil
1960 – President Dwight D. Eisenhower visits Brazil
1949 – President Eurico Gaspar Dutra visits the United States
1947 – President Harry Truman visits Brazil
1936 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt visits Brazil
1905 – Elevation of the two Legations to Embassy status. Joaquim Nabuco is the first Brazilian Ambassador to Washington, and David E. Thompson is the first American Ambassador to Rio de Janeiro
1876 – Emperor Dom Pedro II visits the United States
1825 – Inauguration of the Legation of the United States in Brazil
1824 – The United States is the first nation to recognize Brazil’s independence. Establishment of diplomatic relations. Inauguration of the Brazilian Legation in Washington.