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United States of America

Brazil and the United States are the largest countries in the Western hemisphere. Both nations have dynamic and diversified economies and share important values and interests. The United States is the main destination for Brazil’s exports of manufactured goods and a traditional source of foreign direct investment in Brazil. A number of US companies have been present in the Brazilian market for more than a hundred years. At the same time, Brazilian corporations are also expanding their investments in the United States, in an effort to augment their scale of production, to acquire new technologies and expand their activities worldwide. People-to-people ties have also gained importance through the increase in the number of business trips, student exchanges and cultural activities.

Both sides share the interest to raise the bilateral relations to a new level. Although cooperation between Brazil and the United States is well developed, there are still a number of opportunities available, in areas such as the participation in global value chains, the improvement of corporate governance, the expansion of investments, measures for trade facilitation, as well as joint initiatives in science, technology, and innovation and the strengthening of cooperation in defense, security, energy, outer space, education and culture.

On March 18 and 19, President Bolsonaro made an official visit to the United States. The President chose the country as his first destination for a bilateral visit. The meeting with President Trump launched a new phase of the Brazil-US relations. The visit brought concrete results, among them: visa waiver for U.S. tourists; the signing of the US-Brazil Technology Safeguards Agreement, which, once approved by Congress, will allow for the commercial launching of satellites from the Alcantara Space Center; the signing of an agreement between the Brazilian Space Agency and NASA, aimed at the development of a small satellite for monitoring space climate; the support of the US for Brazil´s accession to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OCDE) as a full member; the designation of Brazil as a “Major non-Nato Ally”, which opens new possibilities of cooperation in the defense area; the revitalization of several bilateral mechanisms with a view to removing trade barriers and fostering investments (the CEO Forum; the US Brazil Commission on Economic and Trade Relations; the Energy Forum). The Joint Statement between both Presidents announces the decision to build a Prosperity Partnership and creates an agenda for the future of the relationship between the two countries.

The constructive dialogue between Brazil and the United States Benefits from the existence of more than thirty bilateral mechanisms. Among the main coordination mechanisms, the following can be highlighted:

- Global Partnership Dialogue (co-chaired by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Brazil and the Secretary of State of the United States);
- Defense Cooperation Dialogue (co-chaired by the Minister of Defense of Brazil and the Secretary of Defense of the United States);
- U.S.-Brazil Permanent Forum on Security;
- Brazil-U.S. CEO Forum;
- U.S. Brazil Energy Forum (USBEF);
- Economic and Financial Dialogue;
- Commercial Dialogue; and
- U.S. Brazil Commission on Economic and Trade Relations.

The recommendations emanating from such mechanisms are raised to the attention of the Presidents of both countries.

In terms of trade, the United States is the second largest trading partner of Brazil, and the main destination for Brazilian manufactured and semi-manufactured products, which compose about 75% of Brazilian exports to the US. Trade in goods and services reached an estimated USD 96 billion, in 2018. According to a report prepared by APEX, in partnership with the American Chamber of Commerce in Brazil, indicates that the stock of U.S. direct investment in Brazil, between 2008 and 2017, expanded by 55.3%, to USD 68.2 billion. It also informs that Brazil's stock of investment in the U.S., by 2008, was og 43.9 billion.

The frequent exchange of high-level visits as well as the wide-range of areas covered by the existing bilateral cooperation mechanisms highlights the broad, dynamic and productive nature of the U.S.-Brazil partnership.

Chronology of Bilateral Relations

1824 – The United States is the first nation to recognize Brazil’s independence. Establishment of diplomatic relations. Inauguration of the Brazilian Legation in Washington

1825 – Inauguration of the Legation of the United States in Brazil

1876 – Emperor Dom Pedro II visits the United States

1905 – Elevation of the two Legations to Embassy status. Joaquim Nabuco is the first Ambassador of Brazil in Washington, and David E. Thompson is the first Ambassador of the United States in Rio de Janeiro

1936 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt visits Brazil

1947 – President Harry Truman visits Brazil

1949 – President Eurico Gaspar Dutra visits the United States

1960 – President Dwight D. Eisenhower visits Brazil

1978 – President Jimmy Carter visits Brazil

1982 – President Ronald Reagan visits Brazil

1986 – President José Sarney visits the United States

1990 – President George H. W. Bush visits Brazil

1995 – President Fernando Henrique Cardoso visits the United States

1997 – President William J. Clinton visits Brazil

2005 – President George W. Bush visits Brazil

2006 – President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva visits the United States

2007 – President George W. Bush visits São Paulo (March). Signing of Memorandum of Understanding on Biofuels

2007 – President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva visits Camp David

2007 – Resolution of the U.S. House of Representatives recognizes the “warm friendship” and the growing “strategic relations” between Brazil and the United States (September)

2008 – U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice visits Brasília and Salvador. Signing of the Action Plan to Promote Racial and Ethnic Equality (March)

2008 – Minister of Defense Nelson Jobim visits Washington (March). Promotion of military rapprochement between the two countries

2008 – The Chief of the Civilian Household of the Presidency, Dilma Rousseff, visits Washington (April)

2008 – First meeting of the ‘Brazil Caucus’, a new informal group of congress members with interest in Brazil and the Brazil-U.S. relations (September)

2009 – Secretary General of Foreign Affairs Samuel Pinheiro Guimarães visits Washington (June)

2010 – Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visits Brazil (March). The Global Dialogue Partnership is launched

2011 – U.S. Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner visits Brazil (February). Dialogue on the world economic situation

2011 Minister Antonio de Aguiar Patriota visits the United States (February 23 and 24). Dialogue on themes of the bilateral and global agenda

2011 President Barack Obama visits Brazil (March). Signing of ten bilateral agreements

2011 – The second meeting of the Global Dialogue Partnership is held in Washington

2012 President Dilma Rousseff makes an official visit to the United States (April 9 and 10)

2012 U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visits Brazil (April 16 and 17). The third meeting of the Global Dialogue Partnership is held in Brasília with the aim of taking “further steps” in the bilateral relations  

2012 – U.S. Secretary of Homeland Security Janet Napolitano visits Brazil (July). Deepening of bilateral dialogue on visa and migration

2012 – The fourth meeting of the Global Dialogue Partnership, the last under the coordination of U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, is held (October). The conclusion of the Action Plan on Aviation Partnership is announced

2013 – Minister  Antonio Patriota visits  Washington (May 20)

2013 – U.S. Vice President Joe Biden visits  Brasil (May 31). The agenda focus on economy and energy issues

2013 – U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry visits Brazil (August 13)

2013 – Vice President Joe Biden visits Brazil (May 31)

2015 – Vice President Joe Biden visits Brazil on the occasion of the inauguration of President Dilma Rousseff (January 1st)

2015 – Minister Mauro Vieira visits Washington (January 13-16)

2015President Dilma Rousseff visits to New York, Washington and San Francisco (June 29 to July 1)

2016 – Minister Mauro Vieira travels to the United States on the occasion of the Third Meeting of the Brazil-U.S. Commission on Economic and Trade Relations under the Brazil-United States Agreement on Trade and Economic Cooperation (ATEC), and in the 4th Nuclear Security Summit, in Washington, D.C. (March 31 to April 1)

2016 – Foreign Minister José Serra holds a working meeting with Secretary of State John Kerry at the Itamaraty Palace in Rio de Janeiro on the occasion of the opening of the Rio 2016 Olympics (August 5)

2017  U.S. Under Secretary for Political Affairs, ambassador Thomas Shannon, visits Brazil, when he is hosted by Foreign Minister José Serra (December 17)

2017Minister Aloysion Nunes Ferreira visits Washington and holds a working meeting with U.S. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson (June 2)

2018U.S. Deputy Secretary of State John J. Sullivan visits Brasília (May 22)

2018 – U.S. Vice President Mike Pence visits Brasília (June 26-27)

2018 – Coordination meeting of the Brazilian consular network in North America (Chicago, July 6-7)

2018Courtesy visit of U.S. Secretary of Defense James Mattis (Brasília, August 13)

2019 – Minister Ernesto Araújo receives U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo (Brasília, January 2), who represented President Donald Trump in the inauguration of president Jair Bolsonaro [Press conference]

2019 – Minister Ernesto Araújo visits the United States (Washington, February 5-7) to hold meetings with U.S. government officials, opinion leaders, entrepreneurs and  congressmen [Pess conference]

2019 – Minister Ernesto Araújo accompanies president Jair Bolsonaro on a visit to the United States (Washington, March 17- 19) [Joint statement]

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