People’s Republic of China
Brazil-China relations were established in 1974, when the Embassy of Brazil in Beijing and the Embassy of China in Brasília were opened. Brazil has Consulates General in Shanghai, Guangzhou and Hong Kong. China has Consulates General in Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Recife.
Bilateral relations have showed a significant dynamism. Since 2009, China has been Brazil's major trading partner and one of the main sources of foreign investment flows into the country. Relations between the two countries go beyond the bilateral arena: Brazil and China have also held talks in mechanisms such as BRICS, G20, WTO and BASIC (a coordinating bloc consisting of Brazil, South Africa, India and China to discuss environmental issues).
In 1993, Brazil and China established a "Strategic Partnership", and in 2004 the Brazil-China High-Level Commission for Coordination and Cooperation (COSBAN) was created.
In 2012, relations were elevated to “Global Strategic Partnership". That year, the Global Strategic Dialogue (GSD) was established, and the Brazil-China Ten-year Cooperation Plan (2012-2021) was signed.
COSBAN, the highest-level permanent mechanism of bilateral dialogue and cooperation, is co-chaired by the vice presidents of Brazil and China. Its fifth and most recent meeting took place in Beijing, in May 2019. Previous plenary sessions were held in Beijing (2006), Brasília (2012), Guangzhou (2013) and Brasília (2015).
In July 2019, the third edition of the Global Strategic Dialogue (GSD) was held in Brasília. The GSD is a mechanism established between foreign ministers to follow the bilateral agenda and to promote the exchange of views on international issues. Previous GSD meetings were held in Brasília (April 2014) and in Beijing (June 2017).
In 2019 President Jair Bolsonaro made a State visit to Beijing (October 25) , and President Xi Jinping visited Brasília (November 13-14) within the context of the 11th BRICS Summit (November 13-14). In additon, visits of ministers and authorities from the two countries took place.
Trade between Brazil and China expanded considerably in the past decade, going from $3.2 billion, in 2001, to $98.9 billion, in 2019 (volume almost equal to the record reached in the previous year, of $98.9 billion). China has been Brazil’s main trading partner since 2009. In 2012, China became the leading exporter to Brazil.
In 2019, Brazil exported a total of $62.8 billion to China and imported $35.2 billion from that country (compared to $64.2 billion in exports and $34.7 billion of imports in 2018)
China is among the main sources of foreign direct investment in Brazil, with a growing presence in strategic sectors of the Brazilian economy, particularly in power generation, oil extraction, telecommunications, financial services and industry.
Financial cooperation has grown at bilateral and multilateral levels. Several Chinese banks operate in Brazil, and the Banco do Brasil (Bank of Brazil) has an agency in Shanghai since May 2014, the first agency of a Latin American bank in China.
Of particular interest is space cooperation. In 1988, the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite Program (CBERS) was established for the construction and launch of satellites, a pioneer project among developing countries in the high-tech field. Since the inception of the program, six satellites have been launched (in 1999, 2003, 2007, 2013 and 2019).
Chronology of bilateral relations
1974 – Establishment of diplomatic relations (August)
1982 – Minister of Foreign Affairs Ramiro Saraiva Guerreiro visits China (March)
1984 – President João Baptista Figueiredo visits China (May)
1984 – Foreign Minister Wu Xueqian visits Brazil (August)
1985 – Premier Zhao Ziyang visits Brazil (November)
1988 – President José Sarney visits China (July)
1988 – The Brazil-China Earth Resources Satellite Program (CBERS) is established (July)
1990 – President Yang Shangkun visits Brazil (May)
1992 – Premier Li Peng visits Brazil (June)
1993 – State Councillor and Minister of Foreign Affairs Qian Qichen visits Brazil (March)
1993 – Premier Zhou Rongji visits Brazil. Establishment of the Brazil-China Strategic Partnership (May/June)
1993 – President Jiang Zemin visits Brazil (November)
1995 – President Fernando Henrique Cardoso visits China (December)
1995 – Brazil announces its support for China’s accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO)
1996 – Premier Li Peng visits Brazil (November)
1998 – Minister of Foreign Affairs Luiz Felipe Lampreia visits China (November)
1999 – Launching of the CBERS-1 satellite (October)
1999 – Vice President Marco Maciel visits China (December)
2000 – Foreign Minister Tang Jiaxuan visits Brazil (September)
2000 – China becomes Brazil’s largest trading partner in Asia
2001 – President Jiang Zemin visits Brazil (April)
2003 – Launching of the CBERS-2 satellite (October)
2004 – Minister of Foreign Affairs Celso Amorim visits China (February)
2004 – President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva visits China (May)
2004 – The Brazil-China High-Level Commission for Coordination and Cooperation (COSBAN) is established (May)
2004 – President Hu Jintao visits Brazil.
2006 – The First COSBAN meeting is held in Beijing, chaired by Vice President José Alencar on the Brazilian side and by Deputy Prime-Minister Mme Wu Yi on the Chinese side (March)
2006 – The Chairman of China’s National People’s Congress, Wu Bangguo, visits Brazil (August)
2007 – The Strategic Dialogue between Foreign Ministries is established (April)
2007 – Tthe CBERS-2B satellite is launched (September)
2007 – The first Brazil-China Strategic Dialogue Meeting is held in Beijing (November)
2008 – He Guoqiang, member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Communist Party of China, visits Brazil (July)
2008 – President Lula da Silva visits China and attends the opening ceremony of the Beijing Olympics (August)
2009 – Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi visits Brazil (January)
2009 – Vice President Xi Jinping visits Brazil (February)
2009 – President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva makes a state visit to China (May 19)
2009 – Hao Chiyong, Deputy Minister of the Supreme People's Court, visits Brazil (May)
2009 – The President of the Supreme Court, Gilmar Mendes, visits China (September)
2009 – The Chairman of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), Jia Qinglin, visits Brazil (November)
2009 – China becomes Brazil's main trading partner
2010 – President Hu Jintao pays a State visit to Brazil and takes part in the 2nd BRICS Summit in Brasília. Signing of the Brazil-China Joint Action Plan 2010-2014 (April)
2010 – The Head Minister of the Institutional Security Cabinet, General Jorge Félix, visits China (April)
2010 – The Minister of Defense of China, General Liang Guanglie, visits Brazil (September)
2011 – President Dilma Rousseff makes a state visit to China and takes part in the Brazil-China Business Seminar, at the Brazil-China High Level Dialogue on Science, Technology and Innovation, and in the 3rd BRICS Summit, in Sanya (April 12-16) [Adopted Acts] [Sanya Declaration]
2011 – Signing of the Brazil-China Joint Health Action Plan 2011-2014 (October)
2011 – President Dilma Rousseff and President Hu Jintao meet on the sidelines of the 6th G20 Summit, in Cannes, France (December)
2012 – Second Meeting of the Brazil-China High-Level Commission for Coordination and Cooperation (COSBAN), chaired on the Brazilian side by Vice President Michel Temer and on the Chinese side by the Vice Premier Wang Qishan (Brasília, February 13)
2012 – The Vice-Chairman of the National People's Congress Standing Committee, Wang Zhaoguo, visits Brazil (March)
2012 – President Dilma Rousseff and President Hu Jintao meet on the sidelines of the 4th BRICS Summit, in New Delhi, India (March) [New Delhi Declaration]
2012 – Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visits Brazil and takes part in the Rio+20 Earth Summit, in Rio de Janeiro. Signing of the 2012-2021 10-Year Cooperation Plan. Bilateral relations are elevated to "Global Strategic Partnership" and the Foreign Ministers Global Strategic Dialogue is established (Rio de Janeiro, June 21) [Adopted Documents]
2012 – Presidents Dilma Rousseff and Hu Jintao meet on the sidelines of the 7th G20 Summit, in Los Cabos, Mexico (June)
2012 – The President of the Chamber of Deputies, Deputy Marco Maia, visits China (June)
2012 – The Vice Chairperson of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, Ms. Zhang Meiying, visits Brazil (December)
2012 – China becomes the main importer of Brazilian products
2013 – President Dilma Rousseff and the Chinese President Xi Jinping meet on the sidelines of the 5th BRICS Summit in Durban, South Africa (March)
2013 – Member of the Political Bureau of the Communist Party of China and Secretary of the Beijing Municipal Committee of the Party, Guo Jinlong, visits Brazil (June)
2013 – Mission of the Minister Chief of the Civil Staff of the Presidency of Brazil, Gleisi Hoffmann, and of the Minister of Development, Industry, and Foreign Trade, Fernando Pimentel, to China (August)
2013 – President Dilma Rousseff with and the President Xi Jinping meet on the sidelines of the 8th G20 Summit in Saint Petersburg, Russia (September)
2013 – Month of Brazil in China (September) and of China in Brazil (October)
2013 – Vice President Michel Temer makes an official visit to China: he participates in the opening ceremony of the 4th Ministerial Conference of the Macau Forum and in the third COSBAN Meeting, in Guangzhou, and meets with President Xi Jinping and Vice President Li Yuanchao (November 4-9)
2013 – The CBERS-3 satellite is launched (December)
2014 – The President of the House of Representatives, Henrique Alves, makes an official visit to China (April)
2014 – President Xi Jinping makes a State visit to Brazil and takes part in the 6th BRICS Summit (Fortaleza and Brasilia, July 15-17)
2014 – Presidents Dilma Rousseff and Xi Jinping meet on the sidelines of the 9th G20 Summit, in Brisbane, Australia (November)
2014 – The CBERS-4 satellite is launched (December)
2015 – Vice President Li Yuanchao visits Brazil to take part in the inauguration ceremony of the President of the Republic (January 2)
2015 – The President of the Supreme Court, Minister Ricardo Lewandowski, visits China (March/April)
2015 – Presidents Dilma Rousseff and Xi Jinping meet on the sidelines of the 7th BRICS Summit (July)
2015 – Meeting of the BRICS Ministers of Foreign Affairs in New York, on the sidelines of the 70th Annual Session of the United Nations General Assembly (September 29)
2015 – The President of the Superior Court of Justice (STJ), Minister Francisco Falcão, visits China (October/November)
2015 – Meeting of the BRICS Leaders in Antalya, Turkey, on the sidelines of the G20 Summit (November 15)
2015 – Presidents Dilma Rousseff and Xi Jinping meet on the sidelines of the COP 21 (November)
2016 – Minister of Finance Nelson Barbosa visits China (February)
2016 – The 23rd BASIC Ministerial Meeting on Climate Change is held in Morroco (October 17)
2017 – Minister of Foreign Affairs Aloysio Nunes Ferreira visits China (Beijing, June 16)
2017 – The 4th Meeting of the Science, Technology & Innovation Subcommittee of the Brazil-China High-Level Commission for Coordination and Cooperation (COSBAN) is held in Brasilia (September 5)
2017 – Meeting of the BRICS Foreign Ministers on the sidelines of the UN General Assembly (New York, September 21)
2018 – The Secretary General of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Marcos Galvão, takes part in the 2nd Meeting of the CELAC-China Forum (Santiago, January 22)
2019 – Vice President Hamilton Mourão visits China. Fifth COSBAN Plenary Session (May 23)
2019 – The Third Meeting of the Global Strategic Dialogue is held in Brasília (July 25)
2019 – President Jair Bolsonaro makes a State visit to China (October 24-26)
2019 – President Xi Jinping visits Brazil on the occasion of the 11th BRICS Summit (November 13-14)
2019 – The CBERS 4-A satellite is launched (December)