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Plurinational State of Bolivia

Relations with Bolivia are a priority for Brazil, encompassing initiatives in areas such as energy cooperation, border cooperation and the fight against transnational illicit acts, as well as the articulation in regional and global forums. Brazil confer geostrategic importance upon relations with Bolivia, the country with which it shares its largest border (3,423 km) and the status of Amazonian and Platino country.

Energy cooperation is of great importance to both countries, being an input for Brazilian energy policy and a source of income for Bolivia. The energy partnership was consolidated with the signing, in 1958, of the "Roboré Agreements" - which raised for the first time the theme of the purchase of Bolivian gas and the construction of a gas pipeline. In 1972, the Agreement on Cooperation and Industrial Complementation established the purchase of Bolivian natural gas and projects aimed at strengthening Bolivia's economy. In the late 1980s, Brazilian interest in Bolivian gas was resumed and a sense of permanence and cooperation was added to the energy partnership. In 1999, negotiations culminated in the implementation of the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline, which plays an important role in deepening bilateral relations and creating opportunities for Bolivia's economic insertion in MERCOSUR.

Bolivia is a country with a stable macroeconomic environment and broad potential for economic growth. The extent of its territory is approximately 1.1 million km² and its population corresponds to about 11.3 million inhabitants (2018). The IMF estimates that Bolivia's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) reached US$ 40 billion in 2018.

The main axes of economic integration with Brazil are the productive integration in the energy sector and the regional infrastructure projects. Because it is geographically located in Central South America, Bolivia is a privileged partner for improving regional physical integration infrastructure.

Brazil is historically Bolivia's main trading partner. It is the first destination of Bolivian exports, due to the sale of natural gas, and second source of the country’s imports. Economic relations with Brazil have driven Bolivian development, due to the Brazilian economic presence in the country, investments and remittances of immigrants.

Brazilian exports to Bolivia are made up of manufactured goods (97% in 2017), with emphasis on wire rod and iron and steel bars, prepared for the preparation of beverages, earthmoving and drilling machinery and polymers. Brazil is an important source of investment and a promising consumer market for Bolivian mineral wealth, fertilizers and energy inputs. Gas accounts for 96% of Bolivia's exports to Brazil. In 2016 and 2017, with the reduction of volumes and prices of gas imported from Bolivia (indexed to the WTI oil price), the current trade flow became surplus to Brazil. In 2018, the trade balance returned to be negative for Brazil, albeit with a much lower margin than before 2016.

In 2018, Brazilian exports to Bolivia increased by 3.2% (from USD 1.5 billion to USD 1.6 billion), while imports grew by 18% (from USD 1.4 billion to USD 1.7 billion) compared to 2017. The Brazilian deficit in 2018 was just over USD 100 million.

Brazil and Bolivia have developed an important policy of border integration in order to make the border an area of peace, cooperation and economic and social development. In 2011, the "Border Integration Committees" were created to seek solutions to specific border zone issues. The meetings of the Committees that operate in Corumbá/Puerto Suárez (2011 and 2018), Brasileia-Epitaciolândia/Cobija (2012), Cáceres/San Matías (2013) and Guajará-Mirim/Guayaramerín (2013 and 2016) were held. This border integration policy seeks to bring effective improvements to the local population.

The permanent dialogue with the Bolivian Government is also important to address transversal challenges that require coordinated actions to be resolved. The following are the object of joint monitoring: the development and control of border regions; and actions to combat transnational illicit activities and the global drug problem. Notable is the increase in cooperation in the fight against transnational illicit acts, especially in relation to the drug problem, such as the establishment of the Brazil-Bolivia-Peru cooperation agenda.

Chronology of Bilateral Relations

2019 – Participation of President Evo Morales in the inauguration ceremony of President Jair Bolsonaro (January 1)

2018Visit of the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Aloysio Nunes Ferreira, to Bolivia (La Paz, August 20)

2017Visit to Brazil of the President of Bolívia, Evo Morales (December 5) [Adopted acts – Spanish]

2017 – Visit to Brazil of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Bolivia, Fernando Huanacuni (October 6) [Signature of the International Interinstitutional Agreement subscribed between the Ministry of Health of the Federative Republic of Brazil and the Ministry of Health of the Plurinational State of Bolivia in matters of health cooperation at the border]

2017Visit of the Minister of Government of the Plurinational State of Bolivia, Mr Carlos Romero Bonifaz (May 12)

2016 – Visit of President Evo Morales to Brasilia (February 2) [Press declaration]

2015Meeting between Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru to promote safe migration in South America [Joint Communiqué / Portuguese]

2015 – President Dilma Rousseff's official working visit to La Paz on the occasion of the inauguration of President Evo Morales (January 22)

2015 – Visit of President Evo Morales to Brasília for the inauguration of President Dilma Rousseff (January 1)

2014 – Visit of Minister Luiz Alberto Figueiredo Machado to Cochabamba (March 31)

2013Visit of Minister Antonio de Aguiar Patriota to Cochabamba (March 2)

2012Signature of Protocol of Accession to MERCOSUR Of the Plurinational State of Bolivia (December 7) [Joint statement]

2012Visit of Minister David Choquehuanca to Brasília (March 19)

2011Visit of Minister Antonio de Aguiar Patriota to La Paz (March 25)

2010 – Visit of the Special Advisor of the Presidency, Marco Aurélio Garcia, to La Paz (April)

2010 – President Evo Morales takes office for his second term (January 22)

2009 – Meeting between the Presidents of Brazil and Bolivia in Villa Tunari. Signature of a Protocol on Brazilian financing of the San Ignácio de Moxos (Villa Tunari Highway, August)

2009 – Visit of Minister Celso Amorim to La Paz, on the occasion of the Bicentennial of "Gesta Libertaria" (July)

2009 – Minister David Choquehuanca's working visit to Brazil (March)

2009 – High Level Meeting on Madeira River Hydroelectric Projects, in Brasilia (March)

2009 – Border Meeting between Presidents of Brazil and Bolivia, between Puerto Suárez and Ladário. Inauguration of two sections of the future Brazil-Bolivia-Chile Interoceanic Corridor. Deepening discussions on regional infrastructure, drug trafficking and bilateral trade (January 15)

2008 – Meeting of President Lula with President Morales, on the sidelines of the Latin American and Caribbean Summit on Integration and Development (CALC), in Sauípe (December)

2008 – Bilateral meeting between President Lula and President Morales, on the sidelines of the quadripartite meeting of Manaus - Brazil, Bolivia, Venezuela and Ecuador (September)

2008 – Working visit of President Lula to Riberalta, in the Bolivian Amazon. Signing of the protocol on Brazilian financing for the construction of the road between Riberalta and Rurrenabaque (July)

2008 – Meeting between Minister Celso Amorim and Chancellor David Choquehuanca, by the UNASUR Extraordinary Summit Meeting’s eve, in Brasilia (May)

2008 – Minister Celso Amorim's official working visit to La Paz and Santa Cruz de la Sierra, where he maintained contacts with President Morales, Vice-President Linera and Foreign Minister, Choquehuanca (April)

2008 – Invitation by the Bolivian Government to Brazil to be part of the “Group of Friends of Bolivia”, aiming the facilitation the dialogue between the Government and the opposition (March)

2008 – Vice-President García Linera and Minister Carlos Villegas’ working visit to Brasilia (February)

2007 – President Lula's workig visit to La Paz. Petrobras announces new investments in Bolivia. Cooperation and Financing agreements to Bolivia were signed (December)

2007 – Chancellor Choquehuanca's working visit to Brazil (August)

2007 – State visit of President Evo Morales to Brazil (February)

2006 – Adhesion of Bolivia to the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA)

2006 – Working visit of the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Worship, David Choquehuanca, to Brazil (December)

2006 – Minister Celso Amorim's working visit to La Paz. Creation of Working Groups on Agrarian and Migration issues (May)

2006 – Launching of negotiations with Petrobras about nationalization of its assets (May)

2006 – Hydrocarbons nationalization in Bolivia become effective (May 1)

2006 – Working visit of President-elected, Evo Morales, to Brazil (January)

2005 – Minister Celso Amorim's working visit to La Paz. Agreement, by Exchange of Diplomatic Notes, on Migratory Regularization (August)

2005 – Approval of new Bolivian law for the nationalization of hydrocarbons, by popular referendum

2004 – Brazilian presidential working visit to Santa Cruz de La Sierra. Signing of bilateral debt forgiveness on Bolivia’s debt (current value of US$ 53 million. BNDES Framework Agreement to Bolivia) (July)

2004 – Brazil-Bolivia Agreement on Facilitation of the Entry and Transit of their Nationals on respective territories

2003 – Minister Celso Amorim's working visit to La Paz, as head of the Brazilian Cooperation Mission (October)

1999 – The GASBOL pipeline goes into operation

1996 – Agreement on Tax Exemption for the Implementation of the Brazil-Bolivia Gas Pipeline

1996 – Free Trade Area between MERCOSUR and Bolivia

1992 – Agreement on the Purchase of Bolivian Natural Gas. Construction of 3 thousand km pipeline

1984 – President Figueiredo's working visit to Santa Cruz: first visit of a Brazilian President to Bolivia

1973 – Agreement to build gas pipeline between Santa Cruz de la Sierra and Paulínia refinery (SP)

1969 – Plata Basin Treaty (Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay)

1958 – Roboré Agreements (oil exploration, railway works and economic cooperation)

1932-1935 – Chaco War. Bolivia is defeated by Paraguay

1912 – Inauguration of the Madeira-Mamoré Railway

1903 – Petrópolis Treaty. Acre is incorporated into Brazil, which pays 2 million pounds in compensation to Bolivia and commits to build the Madeira-Mamoré railway

1903 – Modus vivendi on Acre is signed with Bolivia for cessation of hostilities

1902 – Plácido de Castro Revolution in Acre (60 thousand Brazilians oppose the Bolivian Government and the leasing of Acre to the American company "Bolivian Syndicate")

1899 – Former Spanish diplomat Luís Galvez R. Arias proclaims the independence of Acre

1884 – End of the Pacific War against Chile. Bolivia loses access to the Pacific Ocean

1879 – Beginning of the Pacific War. Brazil remains neutral

1872 – Chile and Bolivia break diplomatic relations. Brazil represents Bolivia in Santiago

1867 – Treaty of La Paz de Ayacucho establishes Madeira-Javari line as common border

1825 – Bolivia's Declaration of Independence

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