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Oriental Republic of Uruguay

Uruguay is one of Brazil’s main partners in South America. Historical, political and human ties between the two countries allow for the high degree of mutual trust, which pervades all aspects of the bilateral relationship. Cooperation between the two countries is encompassing, permeating the political, economic, technological and social fields.

The increasing economic integration has benefited the economy and the industry of the two countries. Between 2008 and 2018, the flow of bilateral trade increased from US$ 2.6 billion to US$ 4.2 billion. In 2018 alone, bilateral trade grew by 13.5%, with an increase in Brazilian exports (US$ 3 billion; +28,1%) and a fall in Brazilian imports (US$ 1,2 billion; -12,4%), which accounted for an increase in the Brazilian surplus (US$ 1,8 billion; +80,5%). The importance of Brazilian investments in Uruguay, particularly in agricultural exporting sectors, should also be highlighted.

The relationship gained momentum with the creation of the " Brazil-Uruguay High Level Group”, which is divided into six subgroups (productive integration; science, technology and innovation; communication and information; transportation infrastructure integration; free movement of goods and services; free movement of persons). This initiative aims to conceive and monitor projects in strategic areas of the bilateral relationship.

The First Plenary Meeting of the Brazil-Uruguay High Level Group (July 2013) adopted the “Action Plan for the Sustainable Development and the Brazil-Uruguay Integration”, a document that includes 40 strategic actions in the short, medium and long terms. In addition to other concrete results, the work of the subgroups led to the signing of the “Agreement on Permanent Residence with the Goal of Achieving the Free Movement of Persons", which establishes a simplified mechanism for granting permanent residence to Brazilian and Uruguayan nationals wishing to establish residence in the other country. This agreement came into force on July 7 2017.

Border cooperation is another important topic of bilateral relations. Brazil and Uruguay’s common border stretches over 1,069 Km and is home to a significant population contingent. A noteworthy policy-making mechanism for the border, the New Brazil-Uruguay Border Cooperation and Development Agenda works in coordination with the state / departmental and local levels of the Brazilian and Uruguayan governments, seeking to meet the demands of the border population through bilaterally agreed policies. Measures adopted under the “New Agenda” include the Aceguá-Aceguá Integrated Sanitation Project, which channels funds from the Structural Convergence Fund of MERCOSUR (FOCEM) to create integrated sanitation systems between the two cities, thus avoiding unnecessary duplication of efforts and waste of resources

The Tenth High Level Meeting of the New Agenda for Border Cooperation and Development was held in Brasilia, in April 2016, at the level of deputy foreign ministers. On the occasion, the  Integrated Working Plan for the Brazil-Uruguay Border was approved. It brings together initiatives to improve the quality of life of the border population

Of particular interest in the area of physical integration is the project for the construction of a second international bridge over Jaguarão river with the aim to improve the flow of the international traffic of freight and passenger between Brazil and Uruguay. Another important project is the restoration of historical and architectural elements of the Barão de Mauá International Bridge linking the towns of Jaguarão (Brazil) and Rio Branco (Uruguay). Opened in 1930, the bridge was recognized as MERCOSUR historical heritage in 2015. The coordination between the two countries in the physical and institutional structuring of the Brazil-Uruguay Waterway, which comprises the Patos and Mirim lagoons and their tributaries, should also be mentioned.



Chronology of bilateral relations

1828 – Peace Convention formalizing the Independence of Uruguay is signed in Rio de Janeiro

1830 – Uruguayan Constitution is officially approved, after ratification by Brazil and Argentina

1854 – Brazil intervenes in Uruguay to support Venancio Flores, of the colorado party

1857 – Commerce and Navigation Treaty between Brazil and Uruguay is signed in Rio de Janeiro

1864 – Brazilian fleet is sent to Uruguay to claim compensation for cattle breeders from Rio Grande do Sul State.

1864 – Uruguayan government breaks off diplomatic relations with Brazil, and Brazilian troops invade Uruguay

1865 – José Maria da Silva Paranhos signs Peace Agreement with the warring factions in Uruguay

1865 – The colorados defeat the blancos with the support of Brazil, adopting a pro-Empire policy

1865 – Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay sign the Treaty of Triple Alliance against Paraguay

1889 – Uruguay recognizes the republican regime in Brazil

1909 –Brazil unilaterally grants the use of Mirim Lagoon and the Jaguarão River

1963 – Agreement on the Establishment of a Joint Commission for the Exploitation of the Mirim Lagoon

1975 – Brazil and Uruguay conclude in Rivera the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Trade

1991 – Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay sign the Treaty for the establishment of MERCOSUR

2004 – Agreement for Residence, Study and Work Permit for Border Nationals

2005 – President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva participates in the inauguration of President Tabaré Vázquez (March)

2005 – President Tabaré Vázquez makes a State visit to Brazil (April)

2006 – President Tabaré Vázquez makes an official visit to Brazil (March)

2006 – Bilateralization of the Agreement on Residence for MERCOSUR Nationals (March)

2006 – Presidents Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva and Tabaré Vázquez meet in Porto Alegre (September)

2007 – President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva pays a working visit to Uruguay (February)

2007 – President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva announces the opening of Bank of Brazil and the National Development Bank (BNDES) offices in Uruguay (December)

2008 – Foreign Minister Gonzalo Fernandez visits Brasilia (May)

2009 – President Tabaré Vázquez visits Brazil (March 10)

2010 – President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva participates in the inauguration of President José Mujica

2010 –  President José Mujica visits Brasília (March)

2010 – President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva visits Montevideo (May 4)

2010  – Presidents Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and José Mujica meet in Santana do Livramento - Rivera (July 30)

2010 – President José Mujica participates in the opening ceremony of the Darcy Ribeiro Memorial at the University of Brasília (December)

2010 – Presidents Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and Mujica meet on the sidelines of the MERCOSUR  Summit (December)

2011 – President José Mujica participates in the inauguration of President Dilma Rousseff

2011 –  Minister Antonio de Aguiar Patriota visits  Montevideo (January 18)

2011 – President Jose Mujica attends the Uruguay-Brazil Business Meeting at the headquarters of the Federation of Industries of the State of São Paulo (FIESP) (March 14)

2011 –  President Dilma Rousseff visits Montevideo (May)

2011 – Foreign Minister Luis Almagro visits Brasília (June)

2011 – Minister Antonio de Aguiar Patriota visits Montevideo (September)

2011 – President Jose Mujica visits Porto Alegre (November)

2011 – Presidents Dilma Rousseff and José Mujica meet on the sidelines of the Ibero-American Meeting in Celebration of the International Year for People of African Descent, held in Salvador (November 19)

2011 – Foreign Minister Luis Almagro visits Brasilia (November 21)

2012 – President Jose Mujica visits Brasília (April and July)

2012 – Presidents Dilma Rousseff and José Mujica establish the Brazil-Uruguay High Level Group (July 31)

2012 – The eighth High Level Meeting of the New Agenda for Brazil-Uruguay  Cooperation and Border Development is held in Porto Alegre ( September 13-14)

2012 – Foreign Minister Luis Almagro visits Rio de Janeiro (October 5)

2012 –President Jose Mujica visits Brasília (December)

2013 – Foreign Minister Luis Almagro visits Brasilia (July 5)

2013 – First Plenary Meeting of the Brazil-Uruguay High Level Group.  The "Action Plan for Sustainable Development and Brazil-Uruguay Integration" is approved (July 9)

2013 – President Dilma Rousseff travels to Montevideo, on the occasion of the 45th Summit of the Heads of State of MERCOSUR and Associate States (July 11-12)

2013 –  Minister of Foreign Affairs, Luiz Alberto Figueiredo Machado, visits Montevideo (October 21)

2013 – President José Mujica visits Brasília (November 10)

2014 – Minister Luiz Alberto Figueiredo Machado travels to Montevideo, on the occasion of the second plenary meeting of the Brazil-Uruguay  High Level Group(May 16)

2014 – Presidents Dilma Rousseff and Jose Mujica meet in Brasilia, on the sidelines of the meeting with BRICS leaders (July)

2014 – Vice President Michel Temer visits Montevideo (September 23)

2014 – President Jose Mujica pays a working visit to Brasilia (November)

2015 – President Jose Mujica travels to Brasilia for the inauguration ceremony  of President Dilma Rousseff (January)

2015 – President Jose Mujica visits Belo Horizonte (February)

2015 – Minister Mauro Vieira travels to Montevideo, on the occasion of the Meeting of the scaled-down Commission of Foreign Ministers of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) on the situation in Venezuela (February 9)

2015 – President Dilma Rousseff travels to the department of Colonia for the opening of Artilleros Wind Farm, and to Montevideo for the inauguration ceremony of the President of Uruguay, Tabaré Vázquez (February 28 to March 1)

2015 – The Foreign Minister of Uruguay, Rodolfo Nin Novoa, visits Brazil (April 16)

2015 – The President of Uruguay, Tabaré Vázquez, pays a State visit to Brazil (May 21)

2015 –  President Tabaré Vázquez visits Brasilia, on the occasion of the 48th MERCOSUR Summit (July 18)

2015 –  Uruguayan ministers of Foreign Affairs, Rodolfo Nin Novoa, and of Industry, Energy and Mining, Carolina Cosse visit Brazil (December 9)

2016 – The Secretary General of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Sérgio França Danese, conducts, along with his Uruguayan counterpart, Ambassador José Luis Cancela, the 10th Brazil-Uruguay High-Level Meeting of the New Agenda for Border Cooperation and Development, in Brasília (April 18-19)

2016  Minister José Serra visits Montevideo, where he is hosted by President Tabaré Vázquez and holds a working meeting with Foreign Minister Rodolfo Nin Novoa (July 5)

2017 – The Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, Rodolfo Nin Novoa, visits Brazil  (Brasilia, March 29)

2018 – The president of the Republic and the minister of Foreign Affairs visit Uruguay to take part in the 53rd Summit of the  Heads of State of MERCOSUR and Associated States and in the 53rd Meeting of the Common Market Council (December 17)

2019 – The minister of Foreign Affairs of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, Rodolfo Nin Novoa, visits Brazil  (Brasilia, June 7)




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