Republic of Haiti
Relations between Brazil and Haiti gained high density as from the Brazilian decision to join the United Nations Mission for Haiti Stabilization (MINUSTAH), in 2004. The earthquake in 2010, which killed more than 100,000 people and generated equivalent to 120% of GDP losses, demanded the intensification of Brazilian cooperation for Haiti's development.
There are bilateral initiatives in several areas, among them the following:
• safety, both in regard to the MINUSTAH's mission and the cooperation for strengthening the Haitian National Police (PNH);
• economic, within the framework of the Haiti Reconstruction Fund and other aid initiatives;
• social, through humanitarian assistance and cooperation programs in the areas of food security, health and education; and
• political / institutional, through the exchange of experiences between Brazilian and Haitian Judiciary and support to the electoral process and to the facilitation of dialogue between the constituted Powers.
Brazil has exercised the command of MINUSTAH troops since its inception. Currently, 1,402 military officers and 6 Brazilian police officers are part of the mission. Brazil's decision to accept the military command of MINUSTAH is anchored on the tripod "military presence", "political reconciliation" and "economic uplift”.
Currently, the MINUSTAH Consolidation Plan provides for gradual reduction of its military component as well as progressive transfer of responsibilities to the PNH. Brazil has explored ways of cooperation with the PNH. A project on cooperation between Brazilian Federal Highway Police and the PNH is being implemented, with support from the Inter-American Development Bank (BID) for Haitian police training in Brazil.
The UN Security Council has also created a "Core Group" for Haiti, a group that aims to facilitate the implementation of the MINUSTAH's mandate and promote the effective implementation of the international community's efforts in the country. Brazil is part of the "Core Group", along with Canada, Spain, USA, France, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General of the United Nations and representatives from the Organization of American States (OAS) and the European Union.
Since the cooperation agreement between both countries entered into force in 2004, about fifteen Brazilian cooperation projects have been carried out in Haiti. Highlights include the trilateral cooperation Brazil-Cuba-Haiti in healthcare, which involves the construction of epidemiological surveillance laboratories and community hospitals with resources from Brazilian contribution.
In 2012, the National Immigration Council of Brazil eliminated the limit of twelve hundred annual permanent visas for humanitarian reasons, which could be granted to Haitian nationals. Brazil is currently the only country on the continent to adopt particular migratory humanitarian policy for nationals of Haiti. Only in the period between January and September 2013, about eight thousand Haitians entered Brazilian territory, especially through the state of Acre. Since 2010, more than fifteen thousand Haitians have immigrated to Brazil.
Chronology of bilateral relations
1910 – Signing of arbitration Convention between Brazil and Haiti, in Washington
1928 – Establishment of diplomatic relations between Brazil and Haiti, with the opening of representations in both countries
1966 – Signing of Cultural Agreement, in Rio de Janeiro
1982 – Minister of Foreing Affairs of Haiti, Jean Robert Estimé, visits Brasília. Signing of Bilateral Technical Cooperation Agreement
2004 – Creation of the United Nations Mission for the Haiti Stabilization (MINUSTAH), under the command of Brazil, through Resolution 1542 of the UN Security Council (April)
2004 – Brazilian troops members of MINUSTAH, commanded by Major General Division Augusto Heleno Pereira, arrive in Haiti (June)
2004 –"Peace Game" between Brazil’s and Haiti’s soccer teams, with the presence of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (August)
2006 – President-elected of Haiti, René Préval, visits Brazil
2007 – Successful operation of MINUSTAH Cité Soleil, commanded by Brazil
2008 – Opening of the Center for Brazilian Studies "Celso Ortega Terra", in Port Au Prince
2008 – Official visit of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to Port Au Prince (May)
2009 – Minister of Foreign Affairs, Celso Amorim, and Minister for Defense, Nelson Jobim, visit Haiti
2010 – Minister for Defense, Nelson Jobim, visits Haiti to assess the consequences of the earthquake (January)
2010 – Signing of Tripartite Brazil-Cuba-Haiti Agreement on the Program for Strengthening the Health Authority of Haiti (March)
2010 – Participation of President René Préval on the 1st Summit Brazil - Caribbean Community (CARICOM) (April)
2010 – Brazil's financial contribution to Haiti Reconstruction Fund, in the amount of US$ 55 million. First contribution of a country to the Fund (May)
2011– Minister of External Relations, Antonio de Aguiar Patriota, visits Haiti (February and June)
2011 – Participation of the Minister for Defense, Nelson Jobim, in the inauguration of the President of Haiti (May)
2012 – President Dilma Rousseff visits Haiti
2013 – Prime-Minister of Haiti, Laurent Lamothe visits Brasília, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro (May)
2013 – Minister of Foreign Affairs, Luiz Alberto Figueiredo Machado, visits Port Au Prince (November)
2014 – Opening of Community Hospital Bon Repos and the Haitian Institute of Rehabilitation, built within framework of the tripartite cooperation Brazil-Cuba-Haiti (May)
2016 – Visit of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Haiti, Lener Renauld, on the occasion of the opening of the new facilities of the Consulate of Haiti in São Paulo (February 21-23)